• 1.

    Kirberger RM, Fourie SL. Elbow dysplasia in the dog: pathophysiology, diagnosis and control. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1998; 69:4354.

  • 2.

    Bienz H. A. Klinische und radiologische Untersuchungen über den fragmentierten Processus coronoideus medialis im Ellbogengelenk des Berner Sennenhundes und der anderen Sennenhunde-Rassen. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 1985; 127:449450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Wind AP. Elbow incongruity and developmental elbow diseases in the dog: part I. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1986; 22:711724.

  • 4.

    Wind AP, Packard ME. Elbow incongruity and developmental elbow diseases in the dog: part II. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1986; 22:725730.

  • 5.

    Wind AP. Elbow dysplasia. In: Slatter DH, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co 1993;19661977.

  • 6.

    Müller-Gerbl M, Putz R, Hodapp N, et al. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry: a method of assessing the mechanical conditions of the major joints in a living subject. Clin Biomech 1990; 5:193198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bailey AJ, Mansell JP, Sims TJ, et al. Biomechanical and mechanical properties of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis. Biorheology 2004; 41:349358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Holsworth IG, Wisner ER, Scherrer WE, et al. Accuracy of computerized tomographic evaluation of canine radio-ulnar incongruence in vitro. Vet Surg 2005; 34:108113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Mason DR, Schulz KS, Fujita Y, et al. In vitro force mapping of normal canine humeroradial and humeroulnar joints. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:132135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Preston C, Schulz K, Kass P. In vitro determination of contact areas in the normal elbow joint of dogs. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:13151320.

  • 11.

    Samii VF, Les Clifford M, Schulz KS, et al. Computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry of the elbow joint in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:11591166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Simon WH, Friedenberg S, Richardson S. Joint congruence. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1973; 55:16141620.

  • 13.

    Eckstein F, Merz B, Schmid P, et al. The influence of geometry on the stress distribution in joints—a finite element analysis. Anat Embryol 1994; 189:545552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    De Rycke LM, Gielen IM, van Bree H, et al. Computed tomography of the elbow joint in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:14001407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gemmill TJ, Mellor DJ, Clements DN, et al. Evaluation of elbow incongruency using reconstructed CT in dogs suffering fragmented coronoid process. J Small Anim Pract 2005; 46:327333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Tromblee TC, Jones JC, Bahr AM, et al. Effect of computed tomography display window and image plane diagnostic certainty for characteristics of dysplastic elbow joints in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68:858871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Böttcher P, Hinnerk W, Eberhard L, et al. Visual estimation of radioulnar incongruence in dogs using three-dimensional image rendering: an in vitro study based on computed tomographic imaging. Vet Surg 2009; 38:161168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Linsenmaier U, Kersting S, Schlichtenhorst K, et al. Functional CT imaging: load-dependent visualization of the subchondral bone mineralization by means of CT osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) [in German]. Rofo 2003; 175:663669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Müller-Gerbl M. The subchondral bone plate. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 1998; 141:1134.

  • 20.

    Müller-Gerbl M, Putz R, Hodapp N, et al. Computed tomography-osteoabsorptiometry for assessing the density distribution of subchondral bone as a measure of long-term mechanical adaptation in individual joints. Skeletal Radiol 1989; 18:507512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Müller-Gerbl M, Putz R, Kenn R. Demonstration of subchondral bone density patterns by three-dimensional CT osteoabsorptiometry as a noninvasive method for in vivo assessment of individual long-term stresses in joints. J Bone Miner Res 1992; 7:411418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Cann CE. Quantitative CT for determination of bone mineral density: a review. Radiology 1988; 166:509522.

  • 23.

    Carter DR. Mechanical loading history and skeletal biology. J Biomech 1987; 20:10951109.

  • 24.

    Eckstein F, Löhe F, Hillebrand S, et al. Morphomechanics of the humero-ulnar joint: I. Joint space width and contact areas as a function of load and flexion angle. Anat Rec 1995; 243:318326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Eckstein F, Merz B, Müller-Gerbl M, et al. Morphomechanics of the humero-ulnar joint: II. Concave incongruity determines the distribution of load and subchondral mineralization. Anat Rec 1995; 243:327335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Müller-Gerbl M, Putz R, Kenn R. Verteilungsmuster der subchondralen Mineralisierung in der Cavitas glenoidalis bei Normalpersonen, Sportlern und Patienten. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 1993; 131:1013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Simkin PA, Graney DO, Fiechtner JJ. Roman arches, human joints, and disease. Differences between convex and concave sides of joints. Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23:13081311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Eckstein F, Löhe F, Müller-Gerbl M, et al. Stress distribution in the trochlear notch. A model of bicentric load transmission through joints. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994; 76:647653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Goodfellow JW, Bullough PG. The pattern of ageing of the articular cartilage of the elbow joint. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1967; 49:175181.

  • 30.

    Evans HE. The skeleton. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993;122218.

  • 31.

    Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E. Skelett des Oberarmes. In: Lehrbuch der Anatomie der Haustiere. Berlin: Parey, 1992.

  • 32.

    Eckstein F, Jacobs CR, Merz BR. Mechanobiological adaptation of subchondral bone as a function of joint incongruity and loading. Med Eng Phys 1997; 19:720728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Milz S, Eckstein F, Putz R. Thickness distribution of the subchondral mineralization zone of the trochlear notch and its correlation with the cartilage thickness: an expression of functional adaptation to mechanical stress acting on the humeroulnar joint. Anat Rec 1997; 248:189197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Bullough P. The geometry of diarthrodial joints, its physiologic maintenance, and the possible significance of age-related changes in geometry-to-load distribution and the development of osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop 1981; 156:6166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Greenwald AS. Biomechanics of the hip. In: Steinberg ME, ed. The hip and its disorders. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1991;4756.

Advertisement

Topographic and age-dependent distribution of subchondral bone density in the elbow joints of clinically normal dogs

Mark Jan Dickomeit Dr med vet1, Peter Böttcher Dr med vet, habil2, Silke Hecht Dr med vet3, Hans-Georg Liebich Dr med vet, Professor4, and Johann Maierl Dr med vet, habil5
View More View Less
  • 1 Kleintierklinik Bern, Vetsuisse Fakultät, University of Berne, 3012 Berne, Switzerland
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Medicine, Klinik für Kleintiere, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Tiermedizinische Fakultät, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80539 Munich, Germany.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Tiermedizinische Fakultät, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate topographic and age-dependent adaptation of subchondral bone density in the elbow joints of healthy dogs by means of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM).

Animals—42 elbow joints of 29 clinically normal dogs of various breeds and ages.

Procedures—Subchondral bone densities of the humeral, radial, and ulnar joint surfaces of the elbow relative to a water-hydroxyapatite phantom were assessed by means of CTOAM. Distribution patterns in juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (age, < 1 year, 1 to 8 years, and > 8 years, respectively) were determined and compared within and among groups.

Results—An area of increased subchondral bone density was detected in the humerus distomedially and cranially on the trochlea and in the olecranon fossa. The ulna had maximum bone densities on the anconeal and medial coronoid processes. Increased bone density was detected in the craniomedial region of the joint surface of the radius. A significant age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density was revealed in elbow joint surfaces of the radius, ulna, and humerus. Mean subchondral bone density of the radius was significantly less than that of the ulna in paired comparisons for all dogs combined and in adult and geriatric, but not juvenile, dog groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density at the elbow joint was revealed. Maximal relative subchondral bone densities were detected consistently at the medial coronoid process and central aspect of the humeral trochlea, regions that are commonly affected in dogs with elbow dysplasia.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate topographic and age-dependent adaptation of subchondral bone density in the elbow joints of healthy dogs by means of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM).

Animals—42 elbow joints of 29 clinically normal dogs of various breeds and ages.

Procedures—Subchondral bone densities of the humeral, radial, and ulnar joint surfaces of the elbow relative to a water-hydroxyapatite phantom were assessed by means of CTOAM. Distribution patterns in juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (age, < 1 year, 1 to 8 years, and > 8 years, respectively) were determined and compared within and among groups.

Results—An area of increased subchondral bone density was detected in the humerus distomedially and cranially on the trochlea and in the olecranon fossa. The ulna had maximum bone densities on the anconeal and medial coronoid processes. Increased bone density was detected in the craniomedial region of the joint surface of the radius. A significant age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density was revealed in elbow joint surfaces of the radius, ulna, and humerus. Mean subchondral bone density of the radius was significantly less than that of the ulna in paired comparisons for all dogs combined and in adult and geriatric, but not juvenile, dog groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density at the elbow joint was revealed. Maximal relative subchondral bone densities were detected consistently at the medial coronoid process and central aspect of the humeral trochlea, regions that are commonly affected in dogs with elbow dysplasia.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Dickomeit (mark.dickomeit@kkh.unibe.ch).

Presented in abstract form at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Birmingham, West Midlands, England, April 2007.

The authors thank Simone Forterre, Marcus Doherr, and Sonja Hartnack-Wilhelm for assistance with statistical analysis.