• 1.

    Robertson SA, Sanchez LC, Merritt AM. Effect of systemic lidocaine on visceral and somatic nociception in conscious horses. Equine Vet J 2005; 37:122127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Doherty TJ, Frazier DL. Effect of intravenous lidocaine on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies. Equine Vet J 1998; 30:300303.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Brianceau P, Chevalier A, Karas MH, et al. Intravenous lidocaine and small-intestinal size, abdominal fluid, and outcome after colic surgery in horses. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16:736741.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wagner AE. Intra-anesthetic crisis management: hypoperfusion, hypoventilation, and hypoxemia, in Proceedings. 41st Annu Meet Am Assoc Equine Pract 1995;125130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE. Assessment of the hemodynamic effects of lidocaine administered IV in isoflurane-anesthetized cats. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:661668.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Dzikiti TB, Hellebrekers LJ, Van Dijk P. Effects of intravenous lidocaine on isoflurane concentration, physiological parameters, metabolic parameters and stress-related hormones in horses undergoing surgery. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2003; 50:190195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty TJ, et al. Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on the quality of recovery from sevoflurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses. Equine Vet J 2005; 37:559564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Ringer SK, Kalchofner K, Boller J, et al. A clinical comparison of two anaesthetic protocols using lidocaine or medetomidine in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2007; 34:257268.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Enderle AK, Levionnois OL, Kuhn M, et al. Clinical evaluation of ketamine and lidocaine intravenous infusions to reduce isoflurane requirements in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35:297305.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Rezende ML, Wagner AE, Mama KR, et al. Effects of intravenous administration of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in horses. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72:446451.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Steffey EP, Mama KR, Galey FD, et al. Effects of sevoflurane dose and mode of ventilation on cardiopulmonary function and blood biochemical variables in horses. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:606614.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Dunlop CI, Hodgson DS, Chapman PL, et al. Thermodilution estimation of cardiac output at high flows in anesthetized horses. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52:18931897.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Matthews NS, Lindsay SL. Effect of low-dose butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies. Equine Vet J 1990; 22:325327.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Pascoe PJ, Steffey EP, Black WD, et al. Evaluation of the effect of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of halothane in horses. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54:13271332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Feary DJ, Mama KR, Wagner AE, et al. Influence of general anesthesia on pharmacokinetics of intravenous lidocaine infusion in horses. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:574580.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Feary DJ, Mama KR, Thomasy SM, et al. Influence of gastrointestinal tract disease on pharmacokinetics of lidocaine after intravenous infusion in anesthetized horses. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67:317322.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Milde LN, Milde JH. The detrimental effect of lidocaine on cerebral metabolism measured in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. Anesthesiology 1987; 67:180184.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kapur PA, Grogan DL, Fournier DJ. Cardiovascular interactions of lidocaine with verapamil or diltiazem in the dog. Anesthesiology 1988; 68:7985.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Nunes de Moraes A, Dyson DH, O'Grady MR, et al. Plasma concentrations and cardiovascular influence of lidocaine infusions during isoflurane anesthesia in healthy dogs and dogs with subaortic stenosis. Vet Surg 1998; 27:486497.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Aida H, Mizuno Y, Hobo S, et al. Cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Vet Surg 1996; 25:164170.

  • 21.

    Wagner AE, Dunlop CI, Heath RB, et al. Hemodynamic function during neurectomy in halothane-anesthetized horses with or without constant dose detomidine infusion. Vet Surg 1992; 21:248255.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wagner AE, Dunlop CI, Wertz EM, et al. Evaluation of five common induction protocols by comparison of hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation in halothane-anesthetized horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208:252257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Durongphongtorn S, McDonell WN, Kerr CL, et al. Comparison of hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of anesthesia with isoflurane and halothane in horses underoing arthroscopic surgery. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67:3242.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Wagner AE, Bednarski RM, Muir WW. Hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in horses. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51:19221929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Khanna AK, McDonell WN, Dyson DH, et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of hypercapnia during controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the horse. Can J Vet Res 1995; 59:213221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Matthews NS, Hartsfield SM, Mercer D, et al. Recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in horses: comparison to isoflurane and effect of postmedication with xylazine. Vet Surg 1998; 27:480485.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Bergadano A, Lauber R, Zbinden A, et al. Blood/gas partition coefficients of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane in horse blood. Br J Anaesth 2003; 91:276278.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Leece EA, Corletto F, Brearley JC. A comparison of recovery times and characteristics with sevoflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia in horses undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35:383391.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Steffey EP, Hodgson DS, Dunlop CI, et al. Cardiopulmonary function during 5 hours of constant-dose isoflurane in laterally recumbent, spontaneously breathing horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1987; 10:290297.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Murrell JC, White KL, Johnson CB, et al. Investigation of the EEG effects of intravenous lidocaine during halothane anaesthesia in ponies. Vet Anaesth Analg 2005; 32:212221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Steffey EP, Kelly AB, Hodgson DS, et al. Effect of body posture on cardiopulmonary function in horses during 5 hours of constant-dose halothane anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51:1116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Steffey EP, Dunlop CI, Cullen LK, et al. Circulatory and respiratory responses of spontaneously breathing, laterally recumbent horses to 12 hours of halothane anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54:929936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of the cardiovascular effects of equipotent anesthetic doses of sevoflurane alone and sevoflurane plus an intravenous infusion of lidocaine in horses

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 4 K. L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95617.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane alone and sevoflurane plus an IV infusion of lidocaine in horses.

Animals—8 adult horses.

Procedures—Each horse was anesthetized twice via IV administration of xylazine, diazepam, and ketamine. During 1 anesthetic episode, anesthesia was maintained by administration of sevoflurane in oxygen at 1.0 and 1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). During the other episode, anesthesia was maintained at the same MAC multiples via a reduced concentration of sevoflurane plus an IV infusion of lidocaine. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, blood gas analyses, and cardiac output were measured during mechanical (controlled) ventilation at both 1.0 and 1.5 MAC for each anesthetic protocol and during spontaneous ventilation at 1 of the 2 MAC multiples.

Results—Cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between anesthetic protocols. Blood pressures were highest at 1.0 MAC during spontaneous ventilation and lowest at 1.5 MAC during controlled ventilation for either anesthetic protocol. Cardiac output was significantly higher during 1.0 MAC than during 1.5 MAC for sevoflurane plus lidocaine but was not affected by anesthetic protocol or mode of ventilation. Clinically important hypotension was detected at 1.5 MAC for both anesthetic protocols.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lidocaine infusion did not alter cardiorespiratory variables during anesthesia in horses, provided anesthetic depth was maintained constant. The IV administration of lidocaine to anesthetized nonstimulated horses should be used for reasons other than to improve cardiovascular performance. Severe hypotension can be expected in nonstimulated horses at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane, regardless of whether lidocaine is administered.

Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane alone and sevoflurane plus an IV infusion of lidocaine in horses.

Animals—8 adult horses.

Procedures—Each horse was anesthetized twice via IV administration of xylazine, diazepam, and ketamine. During 1 anesthetic episode, anesthesia was maintained by administration of sevoflurane in oxygen at 1.0 and 1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). During the other episode, anesthesia was maintained at the same MAC multiples via a reduced concentration of sevoflurane plus an IV infusion of lidocaine. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, blood gas analyses, and cardiac output were measured during mechanical (controlled) ventilation at both 1.0 and 1.5 MAC for each anesthetic protocol and during spontaneous ventilation at 1 of the 2 MAC multiples.

Results—Cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between anesthetic protocols. Blood pressures were highest at 1.0 MAC during spontaneous ventilation and lowest at 1.5 MAC during controlled ventilation for either anesthetic protocol. Cardiac output was significantly higher during 1.0 MAC than during 1.5 MAC for sevoflurane plus lidocaine but was not affected by anesthetic protocol or mode of ventilation. Clinically important hypotension was detected at 1.5 MAC for both anesthetic protocols.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lidocaine infusion did not alter cardiorespiratory variables during anesthesia in horses, provided anesthetic depth was maintained constant. The IV administration of lidocaine to anesthetized nonstimulated horses should be used for reasons other than to improve cardiovascular performance. Severe hypotension can be expected in nonstimulated horses at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane, regardless of whether lidocaine is administered.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Wagner (aewagner@colostate.edu).

Dr. Ferreira's present address is Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Supported by a grant from the Morris Animal Foundation.

The authors thank Lisa Mangin, Darla Moser, Craig Lesser, and Anne Golden for technical assistance and James ZumBrunnen for assistance with the statistical analysis.