• 1.

    Korvick DL, Pijanowski GJ, Schaeffer DJ. Three-dimensional kinematics of the intact and cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle of dogs. J Biomech 1994; 27:7787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Tashman S, Anderst W, Kolowich P, et al. Kinematics of the ACL-deficient canine knee during gait: serial changes over two years. J Orthop Res 2004; 22:931941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Flo GL. Meniscal injuries. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993; 23:831843.

  • 4.

    de Rooster H, van Bree H. Use of compression stress radiography for the detection of partial tears of the canine cranial cruciate ligament. J Small Anim Pract 1999; 40:573576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Henderson RA, Milton JL. The tibial compression mechanism: a diagnostic aid in stifle injuries. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1978; 14:474479.

  • 6.

    de Rooster H, van Bree H. Radiographic measurement of craniocaudal instability in stifle joints of clinically normal dogs and dogs with injury of a cranial cruciate ligament. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:15671570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Lopez MJ, Hagquist W, Jeffrey SL, et al. Instrumented measurement of in vivo anterior-posterior translation in the canine knee to assess anterior cruciate integrity. J Orthop Res 2004; 22:949954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Vasseur PB. The stifle joint. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;20902133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kim SE, Pozzi A, Kowaleski MP, et al. Tibial osteotomies for cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs. Vet Surg 2008; 37:111125.

  • 10.

    Roe SC, Kue J, Gemma J. Isometry of potential suture attachment sites for the cranial cruciate ligament deficient canine stifle. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008; 21:215220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Arnoczky SP, Marshall JL. The cruciate ligaments of the canine stifle: an anatomical and functional analysis. Am J Vet Res 1977; 38:18071814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Palmisano MP, Andrish JT, Olmstead ML, et al. A comparative study of the length patterns of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in the dog and man. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2000; 13:7377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Dennler R, Kipfer NM, Tepic S, et al. Inclination of the patellar ligament in relation to flexion angle in stifle joints of dogs without degenerative joint disease. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67:18491854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Slocum B, Slocum TD. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy for repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993; 23:777795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Reif U, Probst CW. Comparison of tibial plateau angles in normal and cranial cruciate deficient stifles of Labrador Retrievers. Vet Surg 2003; 32:385389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Butler DL. Kappa Delta Award paper. Anterior cruciate ligament: its normal response and replacement. J Orthop Res 1989; 7:910921.

  • 17.

    Ritter MJ, Perry RL, Olivier NB, et al. Tibial plateau symmetry and the effect of osteophytosis on tibial plateau angle measurements. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2007; 43:9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Reif U, Dejardin LM, Probst CW, et al. Influence of limb positioning and measurement method on the magnitude of the tibial plateau angle. Vet Surg 2004; 33:368375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Grood ES, Suntay WJ. A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee. J Biomech Eng 1983; 105:136144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Kim SE, Pozzi A, Banks SA, et al. Effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics. Vet Surg 2009; 38:2332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Radiographic quantitative assessment of cranial tibial subluxation before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs

View More View Less
  • 1 Comparative Orthopaedics Biomechanics Laboratory and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 2 Comparative Orthopaedics Biomechanics Laboratory and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 3 Comparative Orthopaedics Biomechanics Laboratory and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 4 Comparative Orthopaedics Biomechanics Laboratory and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 5 Comparative Orthopaedics Biomechanics Laboratory and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.

Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.

Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.

Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.

Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.

Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.

Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Kim (stankim@ufl.edu).