• 1.

    Niedermeyer E, Lopes Da Silva E Maturation of the EEG: development of waking and sleep pattern. In: Maturation of the EEG in electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005; 209234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Wauquier A. Aging and changes in phasic events during sleep. Physiol Behav 1993; 54:803806.

  • 3.

    Epstein HT. EEG developmental stages. Dev Psychobiol 1980; 13:629631.

  • 4.

    Katada A, Ozaki H, Suzuki H, et al. Developmental characteristics of normal and mentally retarded children's EEGs. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1981; 52:192201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Klemm WR. Animal electroencephalography. New York: Academic Press Inc, 1969.

  • 6.

    Mysinger PW, Redding RW, Vaughan JT, et al. Electroencepholographic patterns of clinically normal, sedated, and tranquilized newborn foals and adult horses. Am J Vet Res 1985; 46:3641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Pampiglione G. Development of cerebral function in the dog. London: Butterworths, 1963.

  • 8.

    Peterson J, Di Perri R, Himwich WA. The comparative development of the EEG in rabbit, cat, and dog. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1964; 17:557563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Takeuchi T, Sitizyo K, Harada E. Analysis of the electroencephalogram in growing calves by use of power spectrum and cross correlation. Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:777781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Marley E, Key BJ. Maturation of the electrocorticogram and behaviour in the kitten and guinea-pig and the effect of some sympathomimetic amines. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1963; 15:620636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    McGinty DJ, Stevenson M, Hoppenbrouwers T, et al. Polygraphic studies of kitten development: sleep state patterns. Dev Psychobiol 1977; 10:455469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Somers KL, Royals MA, Carstea ED, et al. Mutational analysis of feline Niemann-Pick C1 disease. Mol Genet Metab 2003; 79:99103.

  • 13.

    Vite CH, Ding W, Bryan C, et al. Clinical, electrophysiological, and serum biochemical measures of progressive neurological and hepatic dysfunction in feline Niemann-Pick type C disease. Ped Res 2008; 64:544549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Clancy RR, Bergqvist AGC, Dlugos DJ. Neonatal electroencephalography. In: Ebersole JS, Pedley TA, eds. Current practice of clinical electroencephalography. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2003;160234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Hess R, Koella WP, Akert K. Cortical and subcortical recordings in natural and artificially induced sleep in cats. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1953; 5:7590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Huupponen E, Maksimow A, Lapinlampi P, et al. Electroencephalogram spindle activity during dexmedetomidine sedation and physiological sleep. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52:289294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Williams DC, Aleman MR, Holliday TA, et al. Sedative effects and states of arousal and sleep in the normal equine electroencephalogram (EEG). Vet Anaesth Analg 2004; 31:282291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Van Luijtelaar. Spike-wave discharges and sleep spindles in rats. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Warsz) 1997; 57:113121.

  • 19.

    Pellegrino FC, Sica RE. Canine encephalographic recording technique: findings in normal and epileptic dogs. Clin Neurophysiol 2004; 115:477487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Itamoto K, Taura Y, Wada N, et al. Quantitative electroencephalography of medetomidine, medetomidine-midazolam and medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol in dogs. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2002; 49:169172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Farber NE, Poterack KA, Schmeling WT. Dexmedetomidine and halothane produce similar alterations in electroencephalographic and electromyographic activity in cats. Brain Res 1997; 774:131141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wrzosek M, Nicpon J, Bergamasco L, et al. Visual and quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of healthy young and adult cats under medetomidine sedation. Vet J 2009; 180:221230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Vite CH, McGowan JC, Braund KG, et al. Histopathology, electrodiagnostic testing, and magnetic resonance imaging show significant peripheral and central nervous system myelin abnormalities in the cat model of alpha mannosidosis. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 2001; 60:817828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of the electroencephalogram in young cats

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 2 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats.

Animals—23 clinically normal cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age, and an EEG was recorded at each time point. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age.

Results—Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, which consisted of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike-and-wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Lewis' present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

Supported by a grant from the Ara Parseghian Medical Research Foundation, the National Center for Research Resources (grant No. RR02512), and the Kindy French Charitable Giving Fund.

Presented in abstract form at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, San Antonio, Tex, June 2008.

The authors thank Wenge Ding for assistance with data collection, John Doval for assistance with graphic arts, and Dr. Dorothy Cimino Brown for assistance with the statistical analysis.

Address correspondence to Dr. Vite (vite@vet.upenn.edu).