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Evaluation of a modified acetaminophen absorption test to estimate the abomasal emptying rate in Holstein-Friesian heifers

Abdullah Ehsani-Kheradgerdi DVM1, Kamran Sharifi DVM, DVSc2, Mehrdad Mohri DVM, DVSc3, and Walter Grünberg Dr med vet, PhD4
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9177948977, Iran.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9177948977, Iran.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9177948977, Iran.
  • | 4 Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the suitability of the modified acetaminophen absorption test for evaluation of abomasal emptying rate in ruminating cattle.

Animals—7 Holstein-Friesian heifers.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, heifers consecutively underwent an IV infusion of 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment), 1 L of saline solution containing metoclopramide (0.1 mg/kg), and 1 L of saline solution containing atropine (0.1 mg/kg), with an interval of 15 days between treatments. Immediately after each treatment, acetaminophen diluted in ethanol (50 mg/kg) was infused transcutaneously into the abomasum. Blood samples were obtained repeatedly for measurement of plasma acetaminophen concentration, and pharmacokinetic data were obtained.

Results—Maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration was significantly lower after atropine treatment than after control or metoclopramide treatment, whereas no difference was identified between control and metoclopramide treatments. The interval to maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration was significantly longer in atropine-treated versus metoclopramide-treated heifers. The interval to maximum acetaminophen concentration obtained from a pharmacokinetic model was significantly longer for atropine than for control and metoclopramide treatment. Similarly, areas under the plasma acetaminophen concentration-time curves for the first 60, 90, 120, and 240 minutes after administration were significantly lower for atropine versus metoclopramide or control treatment, whereas differences between metoclopramide and control treatments were not identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified acetaminophen absorption test was a practical, minimally invasive, and reliable method to assess abomasal emptying in cattle. Metoclopramide administered at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg did not increase the abomasal emptying rate.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the suitability of the modified acetaminophen absorption test for evaluation of abomasal emptying rate in ruminating cattle.

Animals—7 Holstein-Friesian heifers.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, heifers consecutively underwent an IV infusion of 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment), 1 L of saline solution containing metoclopramide (0.1 mg/kg), and 1 L of saline solution containing atropine (0.1 mg/kg), with an interval of 15 days between treatments. Immediately after each treatment, acetaminophen diluted in ethanol (50 mg/kg) was infused transcutaneously into the abomasum. Blood samples were obtained repeatedly for measurement of plasma acetaminophen concentration, and pharmacokinetic data were obtained.

Results—Maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration was significantly lower after atropine treatment than after control or metoclopramide treatment, whereas no difference was identified between control and metoclopramide treatments. The interval to maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration was significantly longer in atropine-treated versus metoclopramide-treated heifers. The interval to maximum acetaminophen concentration obtained from a pharmacokinetic model was significantly longer for atropine than for control and metoclopramide treatment. Similarly, areas under the plasma acetaminophen concentration-time curves for the first 60, 90, 120, and 240 minutes after administration were significantly lower for atropine versus metoclopramide or control treatment, whereas differences between metoclopramide and control treatments were not identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified acetaminophen absorption test was a practical, minimally invasive, and reliable method to assess abomasal emptying in cattle. Metoclopramide administered at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg did not increase the abomasal emptying rate.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Administration of the Dean for Research of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.

The authors thank Peter Constable for assistance in programming the pharmacokinetics model.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sharifi (shariffp@um.ac.ir).