Comparison of left ventricular contraction profiles among small, medium, and large dogs by use of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography

Hiroshi Takano Department of Surgery 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa, 229-8501, Japan.

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Yoko Fujii Department of Surgery 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa, 229-8501, Japan.

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Ryokichi Ishikawa Ishikawa Animal Hospital, 1-14-25 Morisaki, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 238-0023, Japan.

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Takuma Aoki Department of Surgery 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa, 229-8501, Japan.

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Yoshito Wakao Department of Surgery 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa, 229-8501, Japan.

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Abstract

Objective—To assess differences in left ventricular contractile indices among dogs of 3 body sizes via 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and to determine body weight–independent systolic variables.

Animals—37 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of body weight: small (< 7 kg), medium (7 to 20 kg), and large (> 20 kg). Right parasternal short-axis echocardiographic views were acquired to measure conventional M-mode variables (left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole, left ventricular internal diameter at end systole, and fractional shortening [FS]) and STE indices (peak systolic strain, peak systolic strain rate, synchrony time index [STI], peak systolic apical rotation, peak systolic basal rotation, peak apical twisting rate, and peak systolic torsion). Values were compared among the 3 groups.

Results—STE indices, except for peak systolic radial strain (SRad), peak systolic basal rotation, and STI, were significantly decreased in large dogs, compared with values for small and medium dogs. No significant difference was detected in stroke index, peak systolic SRad, and peak systolic basal rotation among the 3 groups. The STI in large dogs was significantly increased, compared with that of medium dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed that decreased systolic indices in large dogs should not be interpreted as signs of decreased systolic function. Increased STI in large dogs may contribute to decreased FS. Because peak systolic SRad was not affected by body weight, peak systolic SRad might be a better variable than FS for assessing systolic function.

Abstract

Objective—To assess differences in left ventricular contractile indices among dogs of 3 body sizes via 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and to determine body weight–independent systolic variables.

Animals—37 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of body weight: small (< 7 kg), medium (7 to 20 kg), and large (> 20 kg). Right parasternal short-axis echocardiographic views were acquired to measure conventional M-mode variables (left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole, left ventricular internal diameter at end systole, and fractional shortening [FS]) and STE indices (peak systolic strain, peak systolic strain rate, synchrony time index [STI], peak systolic apical rotation, peak systolic basal rotation, peak apical twisting rate, and peak systolic torsion). Values were compared among the 3 groups.

Results—STE indices, except for peak systolic radial strain (SRad), peak systolic basal rotation, and STI, were significantly decreased in large dogs, compared with values for small and medium dogs. No significant difference was detected in stroke index, peak systolic SRad, and peak systolic basal rotation among the 3 groups. The STI in large dogs was significantly increased, compared with that of medium dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed that decreased systolic indices in large dogs should not be interpreted as signs of decreased systolic function. Increased STI in large dogs may contribute to decreased FS. Because peak systolic SRad was not affected by body weight, peak systolic SRad might be a better variable than FS for assessing systolic function.

Contributor Notes

Supported by a Grant-in-aid for the Promotion of Science (No. 19580375).

Address correspondence to Dr. Fujii (fujiiy@azabu-u.ac.jp).
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