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Evaluation of the analgesic effect of intracameral lidocaine hydrochloride injection on intraoperative and postoperative pain in healthy dogs undergoing phacoemulsification

Shin Ae Park DVM, PhD1, Young Woo Park DVM2, Won Gyun Son DVM3, Tae Hyun Kim DVM4, Jae Sang Ahn DVM5, Jeong Taek Ahn DVM6, Se Eun Kim DVM7, Inhyung Lee DVM, PhD8, and Kangmoon Seo DVM, PhD9
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 3 Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 7 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 8 Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
  • | 9 College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic effects of intracameral lidocaine hydrochloride injection in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.

Animals—12 healthy Beagles with healthy eyes.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 intracameral injections: 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (0.3 mL) or an equivalent amount of balanced salt solution (BSS). All dogs were treated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IV) and cefazolin (30 mg/kg, IV), and tropicamide drops were topically applied to the eyes. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. The initial end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.2%. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, inspired and end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, and oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. The allocated agent was injected intracamerally after aspiration of the same volume of aqueous humor. Ten minutes after injection, phacoemulsification was performed. After surgery began, the isoflurane concentration was adjusted according to heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Pain scores were recorded before surgery and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—Isoflurane requirements were significantly higher in the BSS group than in the lidocaine group. Mean ± SD time to administration of supplementary analgesia was significantly shorter in the BSS group (1.4 ± 1.2 hours) than in the lidocaine group (4.9 ± 1.2 hours).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral lidocaine injection had significant analgesic effects in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Results of this study suggest the value of intracameral lidocaine injection as an analgesic for intraocular surgery in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the BK21 Program for Veterinary Science and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University.

Address correpondence to Dr. Seo (kmseo@snu.ac.kr).