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Early detection of ketoprofen-induced acute kidney injury in sheep as determined by evaluation of urinary enzyme activities

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  • 1 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 2 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 3 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 4 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 5 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 6 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 7 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 8 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 9 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.
  • | 10 Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00170 Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate early indicators of renal tissue destruction and changes in urinary enzyme activities in sheep during the first hours after acute kidney injury induced by administration of an overdose of an NSAID.

Animals—12 adult female sheep.

Procedures—Acute kidney injury was induced in 6 sheep by administration of ketoprofen (30 mg/kg, IV) and detected by evaluation of urinary protein concentration, iohexol clearance, and results of histologic examination. Six sheep served as control animals. Blood and urine samples were collected for up to 24 hours after administration of ketoprofen. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, albumin, and total protein; plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9; and urinary creatinine and protein concentrations, specific gravity, and activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GGT lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured. Urinary protein concentration and enzyme activities were normalized on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations and reported as ratios.

Results—Many urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios increased before the plasma creatinine concentration exceeded the reference value. Urine NAG, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase activities were increased beginning at 2 hours after ketoprofen administration, and alkaline phosphatase, GGT, and MMP-2 activities were increased beginning at 4 hours after ketoprofen administration. Most peak urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios were detected earlier than were the highest plasma creatinine and urea concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary enzyme activities were sensitive early indicators of acute kidney injury induced by an overdose of an NSAID in sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1246–1252)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate early indicators of renal tissue destruction and changes in urinary enzyme activities in sheep during the first hours after acute kidney injury induced by administration of an overdose of an NSAID.

Animals—12 adult female sheep.

Procedures—Acute kidney injury was induced in 6 sheep by administration of ketoprofen (30 mg/kg, IV) and detected by evaluation of urinary protein concentration, iohexol clearance, and results of histologic examination. Six sheep served as control animals. Blood and urine samples were collected for up to 24 hours after administration of ketoprofen. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, albumin, and total protein; plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9; and urinary creatinine and protein concentrations, specific gravity, and activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GGT lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured. Urinary protein concentration and enzyme activities were normalized on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations and reported as ratios.

Results—Many urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios increased before the plasma creatinine concentration exceeded the reference value. Urine NAG, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase activities were increased beginning at 2 hours after ketoprofen administration, and alkaline phosphatase, GGT, and MMP-2 activities were increased beginning at 4 hours after ketoprofen administration. Most peak urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios were detected earlier than were the highest plasma creatinine and urea concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary enzyme activities were sensitive early indicators of acute kidney injury induced by an overdose of an NSAID in sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1246–1252)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Raekallio (marja.raekallio@helsinki.fi).

Supported by grants from the Finnish Veterinary Foundation.