• 1.

    Ho CY, Solomon SD. A clinician's guide to tissue Doppler imaging. Circulation 2006;113:e396e398.

  • 2.

    Firstenberg MS, Greenberg NL, Main ML, et al. Determinants of diastolic myocardial tissue Doppler velocities: influences of relaxation and preload. J Appl Physiol 2001;90:299307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Sohn DW, Chai IH, Lee DJ, et al. Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:474480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Nagueh SF, Sun H, Kopelen HA, et al. Hemodynamic determinants of the mitral annulus diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:278285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Oki T, Tabata T, Mishiro Y, et al. Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging of left ventricular systolic and diastolic wall motion velocities to evaluate differences between long and short axes in healthy subjects. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999;12:308313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Chetboul V, Sampedrano CC, Concordet D, et al. Use of quantitative two-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging for assessment of left ventricular radial and longitudinal myocardial velocities in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:953961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Chetboul V, Sampedrano CC, Tissier R, et al. Quantitative assessment of velocities of the annulus of the left atrioventricular valve and left ventricular free wall in healthy cats by use of two-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging (Erratum published in Am J Vet Res 2006;67:488). Am J Vet Res 2006;67:250258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Teshima K, Asano K, Sasaki Y, et al. Assessment of left ventricular function using pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous mitral regurgitation. J Vet Med Sci 2005;67:12071215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Eidem BW, Tei C, O'Leary PW, et al. Nongeometric quantitative assessment of right and left ventricular function: myocardial performance index in normal children and patients with Ebstein anomaly. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1998;11:849856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Poulsen SH, Jensen SE, Tei C, et al. Value of the Doppler index of myocardial performance in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2000;13:723730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Tei C, Ling LH, Hodge DO, et al. New index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance: a simple and reproducible measure of cardiac function—a study in normals and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cardiol 1995;26:357366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Baumwart RD, Meurs KM, Bonagura JD. Tei index of myocardial performance applied to the right ventricle in normal dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:828832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Pellett AA, Tolar WG, Merwin DG, et al. The Tei index: methodology and disease state values. Echocardiography 2004;21:669672.

  • 14.

    Gaibazzi N, Petrucci N, Ziacchi V. Left ventricle myocardial performance index derived either by conventional method or mitral annulus tissue-Doppler: a comparison study in healthy subjects and subjects with heart failure. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:12701276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Cui W, Roberson DA. Left ventricular Tei index in children: comparison of tissue Doppler imaging, pulsed wave Doppler, and M-mode echocardiography normal values. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:14381445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Eidem BW, McMahon CJ, Cohen RR, et al. Impact of cardiac growth on Doppler tissue imaging velocities: a study in healthy children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004;17:212221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Tham EB, Silverman NH. Measurement of the Tei index: a comparison of M-mode and pulse Doppler methods. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004;17:12591265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Harada K, Tamura M, Toyono M, et al. Assessment of global left ventricular function by tissue Doppler imaging. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:927932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    National Institutes of Health. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. NIH Publication No. 85-23. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, revised 1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Thomas WP, Gaber CE, Jacobs GJ, et al. Recommendations for standards in transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography in the dog and cat. Echocardiography Committee of the Specialty of Cardiology, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. J Vet Intern Med 1993;7:247252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sahn DJ, DeMaria A, Kisslo J, et al. Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements. Circulation 1978;58:10721083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Bonagura JD, O'Grady MR, Herring DS. Echocardiography. Principles of interpretation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1985;15:11771194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Gaber C. Doppler echocardiography. Probl Vet Med 1991;3:479499.

  • 24.

    Kirberger R, Bland-Van Den Berg P, Darazs B. Doppler echocardiography in the normal dog: part I. Velocity findings and flow patterns. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1992;33:370379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kirberger R, Bland-Van Den Berg P, Grimbeek R. Doppler echocardiography in the normal dog: part II. Factors influencing blood flow velocities and a comparison between left and right heart blood flow. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1992;33:380386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Quinones MA, Otto CM, Stoddard M, et al. Recommendations for quantification of Doppler echocardiography: a report from the Doppler Quantification Task Force of the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2002;15:167184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Tei C, Nishimura RA, Seward JB, et al. Noninvasive Doppler-derived myocardial performance index: correlation with simultaneous measurements of cardiac catheterization measurements. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997;10:169178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Spencer KT, Kirkpatrick JN, Mor-Avi V, et al. Age dependency of the Tei index of myocardial performance. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004;17:350352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986;1:307310.

  • 30.

    Dujardin KS, Tei C, Yeo TC, et al. Prognostic value of a Doppler index combining systolic and diastolic performance in idiopathic-dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:10711076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Friedman D, Buyon J, Kim M, et al. Fetal cardiac function assessed by Doppler myocardial performance index (Tei Index). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003;21:3336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Appleton CP, Jensen JL, Hatle LK, et al. Doppler evaluation of left and right ventricular diastolic function: a technical guide for obtaining optimal flow velocity recordings. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997;10:271292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Ding ZP, Oh JK, Klein AL, et al. Effect of sample volume location on Doppler-derived transmitral inflow velocity values. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1991;4:451456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Oh JK, Appleton CP, Hatle LK, et al. The noninvasive assessment of left ventricular diastolic function with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997;10:246270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Ono M, Tanabe K, Asanuma T, et al. Doppler echocardiography-derived index of myocardial performance (TEI index): comparison with brain natriuretic peptide levels in various heart disease. Jpn Circ J 2001;65:637642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Uzunhasan I, Bader K, Okcun B, et al. Correlation of the Tei index with left ventricular dilatation and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Int Heart J 2006;47:331342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Gardin JM, Davidson DM, Rohan MK, et al. Relationship between age, body size, gender, and blood pressure and Doppler flow measurements in the aorta and pulmonary artery. Am Heart J 1987;113:101109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Wanderman KL, Hayek Z, Ovsyshcher I, et al. Systolic time intervals in adolescents. Normal standards for clinical use and comparison with children and adults. Circulation 1981;63:204209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Klein AL, Burstow DJ, Tajik AJ, et al. Effects of age on left ventricular dimensions and filling dynamics in 117 normal persons. Mayo Clin Proc 1994;69:212224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Myreng Y, Nitter-Hauge S. Age-dependency of left ventricular filling dynamics and relaxation as assessed by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Clin Physiol 1989;9:99106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Spirito P, Maron BJ. Influence of aging on Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular diastolic function. Br Heart J 1988;59:672679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Stewart RA, Joshi J, Alexander N, et al. Adjustment for the influence of age and heart rate on Doppler measurements of left ventricular filling. Br Heart J 1992;68:608612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Roberson DA, Cui W. Right ventricular Tei index in children: effect of method, age, body surface area, and heart rate. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;20:764770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Stypmann J, Engelen MA, Breithardt AK, et al. Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the healthy rabbit: differences of cardiac function during awake and anaesthetised examination. Int J Cardiol 2007;115:164170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Chetboul V, Athanassiadis N, Carlos C, et al. Assessment of repeatability, reproducibility, and effect of anesthesia on determination of radial and longitudinal left ventricular velocities via tissue Doppler imaging in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:909915.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Simpson KE, Devine BC, Gunn-Moore DA, et al. Assessment of the repeatability of feline echocardiography using conventional echocardiography and spectral pulse-wave Doppler tissue imaging techniques. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007;48:5868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Agreement between echocardiographic techniques in assessment of the left ventricular myocardial performance index in rabbits

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 3 Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 5 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

Objective—To report reference values and examine the agreement in the myocardial performance (Tei) index of the left ventricle (LVTI) as measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), pulsed-wave Doppler imaging (PWD), and M-mode echocardiography in clinically normal rabbits.

Animals—26 clinically normal male New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Echocardiographic examinations that included TDI, PWD, and M-mode echocardiography were performed. Rabbits were sedated by SC administration of ketamine and midazolam. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to measure absolute agreement among the 3 echocardiographic techniques. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed for values a and b and for the equation (a – b)/b used to determine LVTI; value a equals the sum of isovolumic contraction time, ejection time, and isovolumic relaxation time, and value b equals the left ventricular ejection time. Values of ICC > 0.75 indicated good agreement between 2 echocardiographic techniques.

Results—For value a, Pearson correlation coefficients between pairs of techniques were all high (r r 0.7). However, only the septal TDI and the lateral wall TDI had good agreement (ICC, 0.86). For value b, correlations were generally low with the exception of the correlation between the septal and the lateral wall TDI. For value b, TDI was the only technique with good agreement (ICC, 0.77). For LVTI, only TDI techniques had a significantly positive correlation. All the other correlations were close to zero with a paradoxic moderate negative correlation between PWD-determined LVTI and lateral wall TDI–determined LVTI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For LVTI, the absolute agreement was poor between all pairs of techniques.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (No. POCI/SAU-FCT/60803/2004) through Cardiovascular R&D Unit (FCT No. 51/94).

Dr. Fontes-Sousa was supported by a grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (No. SFRH/BD/22590/2005).

The authors thank Pedro Leitão for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Leite-Moreira.