• 1.

    Lombard JE, Wagner BA, Smith RL, et al. Evaluation of environmental sampling and culture to determine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis distribution and herd infection status on US dairy operations. J Dairy Sci 2006;89:41634171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Wells SJ, Wagner BA. Herd-level risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in US dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive measures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:14501457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Sweeney RW. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1996;12:305312.

  • 4.

    Groenendaal H, Nielen M, Jalvingh AW, et al. A simulation of Johne's disease control. Prev Vet Med 2002;54:225245.

  • 5.

    Groenendaal H, Galligan DT. Economic consequences of control programs for paratuberculosis in midsize dairy farms in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:17571763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Jubb TF, Galvin JW. Effect of a test and control program for bovine Johne's disease in Victorian dairy herds 1992–2002. Aust Vet J 2004;82:228232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Collins MT, Sockett DC, Goodger WJ, et al. Herd prevalence and geographic distribution of, and risk factors for, bovine paratuberculosis in Wisconsin. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994;204:636641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Hirst HL, Garry FB, Morley PS, et al. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection among dairy cows in Colorado and herd-level risk factors for seropositivity. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:97101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Johnson-Ifearulundu YJ, Kaneene JB. Management-related risk factors for M paratuberculosis infection in Michigan, USA, dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 1998;37:4154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Muskens J, Elbers A, Van Weering H, et al. Herd management practices associated with paratuberculosis seroprevalence in Dutch dairy herds. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2003;50:372377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Obasanjo IO, Grohn YT, Mohammed HO. Farm factors associated with the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds on the New York State Paratuberculosis Control Program. Prev Vet Med 1997;32:243251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ridge SE, Baker IM, Hannah M. Effect of compliance with recommended calf-rearing practices on control of bovine Johne's disease. Aust Vet J 2005;83:8590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Collins MT, Gardner IA, Garry FB, et al. Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:19121919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    National Agriculture Statistics Services. California livestock and dairies: milk cows, dairies, cows per dairy and milk production by county and region, 2002–2003. Available at: www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/California/index.asp. Accessed Apr 1, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Adaska JM, Anderson RJ. Seroprevalence of Johne's-disease infection in dairy cattle in California, USA. Prev Vet Med 2003;60:255261.

  • 16.

    Tavornpanich S, Gardner IA, Anderson RJ, et al. Evaluation of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in large dairy herds. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:10611070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Berghaus RD, Farver TB, Anderson RJ, et al. Environmental sampling for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis on large California dairies. J Dairy Sci 2006;89:963970.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    USDA APHIS. Uniform program standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program, effective June 1, 2006. USDA, 2006. Available at: www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/johnes/downloads/johnes-umr.pdf. Accessed Apr 1, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Chen MH, Shao QM, Ibrahim JG. Variable selection for logistic regression models. In: Monte Carlo methods in Bayesian computations. New York: Springer, 2000;268275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mila AL, Yang XB, Carriquiry AL. Bayesian logistic regression of soybean stem rot prevalence in the US North-Central region: accounting for uncertainty in parameter estimation. Phytopathology 2003;93:758764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Carlin PB, Louis TA. The Bayes approach. In: Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for data analysis. New York: Chapman & Hall, 2000;20.

  • 22.

    Gelman A, Rubin DB. Inference from iterative simulation using multiple sequences. Stat Sci 1992;7:457472.

  • 23.

    Thurmond MC, Branscum AJ, Johnson WO, et al. Predicting the probability of abortion in dairy cows: a hierarchical Bayesian logistic-survival model using sequential pregnancy data. Prev Vet Med 2005;68:223239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Tavornpanich S, Gardner IA, Carpenter TE, et al. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of targeted sampling methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:821828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Aly SS, Thurmond MC. Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection of dairy cows attributable to infection status of the dam. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:450454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Koets AP, Adugna G, Janss LL, et al. Genetic variation of susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2000;83:27022708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Jackson C, Best N, Richardson S. Improving ecological inference using individual-level data. Stat Med 2006;25:21362159.

Advertisement

Herd characteristics and management practices associated with seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds

Saraya Tavornpanich DVM, MPVM, PhD1, Wesley O. Johnson PhD2, Randall J. Anderson DVM, MPVM3, and Ian A. Gardner BVSc, MPVM, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Statistics, Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697.
  • | 3 Animal Health Branch, California Department of Food Agriculture, Sacramento, CA 95814.
  • | 4 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate herd characteristics and management practices associated with a high seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy herds in central California.

Sample Population—60 randomly selected cows from each of 21 dairy herds.

Procedures—Sera of selected cows were tested for antibodies against MAP by use of an ELISA test kit. Cows with a test sample-to-positive control sample (S:P) ratio of ≥ 0.25 were considered seropositive, and herds with ≥ 4% seropositive cows were considered high-seroprevalence herds. Data on herd characteristics and management practices were collected via interviews with owners. Bayesian logistic regression was used to model the predictive probability of a herd having a high seroprevalence on the basis of various herd characteristics and management practices.

Results—9 of 21 (43%) herds were classified as high-seroprevalence herds. Five variables (history of previous signs of paratuberculosis in the herd, herd size, exposing cattle to water from manure storage lagoons, feeding unsalable milk to calves, and exposing heifers ≤ 6 months old to manure of adult cows) were included in the predictive model on the basis of statistical and biological considerations. In large herds, the predictive probability of a high seroprevalence of MAP infection decreased from 0.74 to 0.39 when management changed from poor to good practices. In small herds, a similar decrease from 0.64 to 0.29 was predicted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The seroprevalence of MAP infection in California dairies may be reduced by improvements in herd management practices.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Center for Food Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California.

Address correspondence to Dr. Gardner.