Effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on in vivo production of inflammatory mediators in clinically normal dogs

Casey J. LeBlanc Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

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 DVM, PhD
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David W. Horohov Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

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 PhD
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John E. Bauer Comparative Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845.

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Giselle Hosgood Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

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Glenna E. Mauldin Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

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 DVM, MS

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on in vivo production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in dogs.

Animals—15 young healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to receive an isocaloric ration supplemented with sunflower oil (n = 5), fish oil (5), or fish oil plus vitamin E (5) for 12 weeks. At week 12, in vivo production of inflammatory mediators was evaluated in serum at multiple time points for 6 hours following stimulation with IV administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Results—Serum activity or concentration (area under the curve) of IL-1, IL-6, and PGE2 significantly increased after LPS injection in all groups but to a lesser extent in dogs receiving the fish oil diet, compared with results for dogs receiving the sunflower oil diet. Serum activity of TNF-α and PAF concentration also increased significantly after LPS injection in all groups but did not differ significantly among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A fish oil–enriched diet consisting of 1.75 g of EPA/kg of diet and 2.2 g of DHA/kg of diet (dry-matter basis) with an n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 3.4:1 was associated with significant reductions in serum PGE2 concentrations and IL-1 and IL-6 activities. Results supported the use of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets as part of antiinflammatory treatments for dogs with chronic inflammatory diseases. Additional studies in affected dogs are warranted to further evaluate beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on in vivo production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in dogs.

Animals—15 young healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to receive an isocaloric ration supplemented with sunflower oil (n = 5), fish oil (5), or fish oil plus vitamin E (5) for 12 weeks. At week 12, in vivo production of inflammatory mediators was evaluated in serum at multiple time points for 6 hours following stimulation with IV administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Results—Serum activity or concentration (area under the curve) of IL-1, IL-6, and PGE2 significantly increased after LPS injection in all groups but to a lesser extent in dogs receiving the fish oil diet, compared with results for dogs receiving the sunflower oil diet. Serum activity of TNF-α and PAF concentration also increased significantly after LPS injection in all groups but did not differ significantly among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A fish oil–enriched diet consisting of 1.75 g of EPA/kg of diet and 2.2 g of DHA/kg of diet (dry-matter basis) with an n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 3.4:1 was associated with significant reductions in serum PGE2 concentrations and IL-1 and IL-6 activities. Results supported the use of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets as part of antiinflammatory treatments for dogs with chronic inflammatory diseases. Additional studies in affected dogs are warranted to further evaluate beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets.

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