Relationships between velocities of pulmonary venous flow and plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy dogs

Yasutomo Hori Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 23-35-1 Higashi, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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Yoshimi Ukai Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 23-35-1 Higashi, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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Masami Uechi Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.

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Fumio Hoshi Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 23-35-1 Higashi, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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Sei-ichi Higuchi Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 23-35-1 Higashi, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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Abstract

Objective—To investigate the relationship between velocities of pulmonary venous flow (PVF) and plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in healthy dogs.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Lactated Ringer's solution was infused (200 mL/kg/h) for 60 minutes via a cephalic vein. Transmitral flow and PVF velocities were measured echocardiographically by use of the apical 4-chamber view. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and ANP concentrations were determined.

Results—IV infusion significantly increased heart rate and PCWP. Similarly, the ANP concentration significantly increased from baseline (before infusion of lactated Ringer's solution) values. Transmitral flow velocities were significantly increased, although the ratio of velocity of the flow during early ventricular diastole (E wave) to velocity of the atrial flow (A wave; E:A ratio) was unchanged. Regarding the PVF velocities, forward flow during ventricular systole (S wave) and retrograde flow during atrial contraction were significantly increased, whereas velocity of the forward flow during ventricular diastole (D wave) was unchanged. Ratio of the velocity of the S wave to velocity of the D wave was increased significantly, and this ratio was significantly correlated with PCWP or ANP concentration. However, the E:A ratio was not correlated with PCWP or ANP concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PVF velocities were strongly correlated with PCWP and plasma ANP concentration in clinically normal dogs. Therefore, PVF velocities may serve as a sensitive indicator and provide additional information for monitoring acute preloading conditions and estimating atrial filling abnormalities in dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the relationship between velocities of pulmonary venous flow (PVF) and plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in healthy dogs.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Lactated Ringer's solution was infused (200 mL/kg/h) for 60 minutes via a cephalic vein. Transmitral flow and PVF velocities were measured echocardiographically by use of the apical 4-chamber view. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and ANP concentrations were determined.

Results—IV infusion significantly increased heart rate and PCWP. Similarly, the ANP concentration significantly increased from baseline (before infusion of lactated Ringer's solution) values. Transmitral flow velocities were significantly increased, although the ratio of velocity of the flow during early ventricular diastole (E wave) to velocity of the atrial flow (A wave; E:A ratio) was unchanged. Regarding the PVF velocities, forward flow during ventricular systole (S wave) and retrograde flow during atrial contraction were significantly increased, whereas velocity of the forward flow during ventricular diastole (D wave) was unchanged. Ratio of the velocity of the S wave to velocity of the D wave was increased significantly, and this ratio was significantly correlated with PCWP or ANP concentration. However, the E:A ratio was not correlated with PCWP or ANP concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PVF velocities were strongly correlated with PCWP and plasma ANP concentration in clinically normal dogs. Therefore, PVF velocities may serve as a sensitive indicator and provide additional information for monitoring acute preloading conditions and estimating atrial filling abnormalities in dogs.

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