Relationships among measurements obtained by use of computed tomography and radiography and scores of cartilage microdamage in hip joints with moderate to severe joint laxity of adult dogs

Mandi J. Lopez Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

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Brooke P. Lewis Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Megan E. Swaab Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Mark D. Markel Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate correlations among measurements on radiographic and computed tomography (CT) images with articular cartilage microdamage in lax hip joints of dogs.

Animals—12 adult mixed-breed hounds.

Procedures—Pelvic CT and radiography were performed. Hip joints were harvested following euthanasia. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) and PennHIP radiograph reports were obtained. Norberg angle (NA) and radiographic percentage femoral head coverage (RPC) were determined. Center-edge angle (CEA), horizontal toit externe angle (HTEA), ventral acetabular sector angle (VASA), dorsal acetabular sector angle (DASA), horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA), acetabular index (AI), and CT percentage femoral head coverage (CPC) were measured on 2-dimensional CT images. Femoral head–acetabular shelf percentage was measured on sagittal 3-dimensional CT (SCT) and transverse 3-dimensional CT (TCT) images. Light microscopy was used to score joint cartilage. Relationships of OFA confirmation and PennHIP osteoarthritis scores with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables and relationships of cartilage scores with radiography and CT measurements were evaluated with Spearman rank correlations. Pearson correlation was used for relationships of distraction index (DI) with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables.

Results—Significant relationships included PennHIP osteoarthritis score with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; OFA confirmation score with cartilage score, NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; cartilage score with NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and TCT; and DI with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and CPC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT appeared to be a valuable imaging modality for predicting cartilage microdamage in canine hip joints.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate correlations among measurements on radiographic and computed tomography (CT) images with articular cartilage microdamage in lax hip joints of dogs.

Animals—12 adult mixed-breed hounds.

Procedures—Pelvic CT and radiography were performed. Hip joints were harvested following euthanasia. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) and PennHIP radiograph reports were obtained. Norberg angle (NA) and radiographic percentage femoral head coverage (RPC) were determined. Center-edge angle (CEA), horizontal toit externe angle (HTEA), ventral acetabular sector angle (VASA), dorsal acetabular sector angle (DASA), horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA), acetabular index (AI), and CT percentage femoral head coverage (CPC) were measured on 2-dimensional CT images. Femoral head–acetabular shelf percentage was measured on sagittal 3-dimensional CT (SCT) and transverse 3-dimensional CT (TCT) images. Light microscopy was used to score joint cartilage. Relationships of OFA confirmation and PennHIP osteoarthritis scores with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables and relationships of cartilage scores with radiography and CT measurements were evaluated with Spearman rank correlations. Pearson correlation was used for relationships of distraction index (DI) with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables.

Results—Significant relationships included PennHIP osteoarthritis score with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; OFA confirmation score with cartilage score, NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; cartilage score with NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and TCT; and DI with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and CPC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT appeared to be a valuable imaging modality for predicting cartilage microdamage in canine hip joints.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (grant Nos. 1 F32 AR008523-01, 5 F32 AR008523-02, and 5 F32 AR008523-03), the Arthritis Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin–Madison Companion Animal Fund.

The authors thank John Bogdanske and Jennifer Devitt for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Lopez.
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