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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide, mepivacaine hydrochloride, or both on lipopolysaccharide-induced lameness in horses

Alastair T. Kay BVSc1, David M. Bolt Dr med vet, MS2, Akikazu Ishihara BVSc3, Paivi J. Rajala-Schultz DVM, PhD4, and Alicia L. Bertone DVM, PhD5
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  • 1 Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 2 Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Preventative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 5 Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210

Abstract

Objective—To assess analgesia, inflammation, potency, and duration of action associated with intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), mepivacaine hydrochloride, or both in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis.

Animals—18 horses.

Procedures—Both forelimbs of each horse were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 times. After the first LPS injection, 1 forelimb of each horse was treated with intra-articular injection of mepivacaine (80 mg; n = 6), TA (9 mg; 6), or mepivacaine with TA (same doses of each; 6) 12 hours after the initial LPS injection. Contralateral limbs served as control limbs. Joint pain was assessed via lameness score and measurements of vertical force peak and pain-free range of motion of the MCP joint. Periarticular edema was evaluated. Degree of synovial inflammation was determined via synovial fluid analysis for WBC count and total protein concentration. Samples of plasma and synovial fluid were analyzed for TA and mepivacaine concentrations.

Results—Each injection of LPS induced lameness and joint inflammation. Mepivacaine effectively eliminated lameness within 45 minutes after injection, regardless of whether TA was also administered, whereas TA reduced lameness, edema, and concentration of synovial fluid protein after the second LPS injection, regardless of whether mepivacaine was also injected. Treatment with TA also induced higher WBC counts and mepivacaine concentrations in synovial fluid, compared with results for mepivacaine alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested TA is a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication for acute synovitis in horses and that simultaneous administration of mepivacaine does not alter the potency or duration of action of TA.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kay's present address is Large Animal Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7385.

Dr. Bolt's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Campus, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, England.

Supported by the American Quarter Horse Association.

Presented in abstract form at the American College of Veterinary Surgeons Annual Surgical Summit, Chicago, October 2007.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bertone.