• 1.

    Brock KV, Grooms DL, Givens MD. Reproductive disease and persistent infections. In: Goyal SM, Ridpath JF, eds. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: diagnosis, management and control. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2005;145156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Ward GM, Roberts SJ, McEntee K, et al. A study of experimentally induced bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease in pregnant cows and their progeny. Cornell Vet 1969;59:525538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Van Campen H, Williams ES, Edwards J, et al. Experimental infection of deer with bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Wildl Dis 1997;33:567573.

  • 4.

    Passler T, Walz PH, Ditchkoff SS, et al. Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer. Vet Microbiol 2007;122:350356.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Ridpath JF, Mark CS, Chase CCL, et al. Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white tail deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain. J Wildl Dis 2007;43:653659.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Chase CCL, Braun LJ, Leslie-Steen P, et al. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota. J Wildl Dis 2008;44:753759.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bolin SR, Ridpath JF, Black J, et al. Survey of cell lines in the American Type Culture Collection for bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Virol Methods 1994;48:211221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Ridpath JF, Bolin SR. Differentiation of types 1a, 1b and 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) by PCR. Mol Cell Probes 1998;12:101106.

  • 9.

    Ridpath JF, Neill JD, Vilcek S, et al. Multiple outbreaks of severe acute BVDV in North America occurring between 1993 and 1995 linked to the same BVDV2 strain. Vet Microbiol 2006;114:196204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gillespie JH, Baker JA, McEntee K. A cytopathogenic strains of virus diarrhea virus. Cornell Vet 1960;50:7379.

  • 11.

    National Agricultural Library Web site. Animal Welfare Act as amended (7 USC, 2131-2156). Available at: www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awa.htm. Accessed Oct 27, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Johnson MK. Gestation lengths of northern versus southern white-tailed deer. Louisiana Agriculture Magazine 2002;45 (2):13.

  • 13.

    Armstrong RA. Fetal development of the northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus boreais Miller). Am Midland Naturalist 1950;43:650666.

  • 14.

    Liebler-Tenorio EM, Ridpath JE, Neill JD. Distribution of viral antigen and development of lesions after experimental infection with highly virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in calves. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:15751584.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Willard ST, Petty SJ, Sasser RG, et al. Pregnancy detection and the effects of age, body weight, and previous reproductive performance on pregnancy status and weaning rates of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama). J Anim Sci 1999;77:3238.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kovacs F, Magyar T, Rinehart C, et al. The live attenuated bovine viral diarrhea virus components of a multi-valent vaccine confer protection against fetal infection. Vet Microbiol 2003;96:117131.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Baker JC. The clinical manifestations of bovine viral diarrhea infection. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1995;11:425445.

  • 18.

    Duffell SJ, Harkness JW. Bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease infection in cattle. Vet Rec 1985;117:240245.

  • 19.

    Done JT, Terlecki S, Richardson C, et al. Bovine virus diarrhoeamucosal disease virus: pathogenicity for the fetal calf following maternal infection. Vet Rec 1980;106:473479.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Njaa BL, Clark EG, Janzen E, et al. Diagnosis of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed skin biopsy specimens. J Vet Diagn Invest 2000;12:393399.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ridpath JF, Hietala SK, Sorden S, et al. Evaluation of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/probe test of serum samples and immunohistochemistry of skin sections for detection of acute bovine viral diarrhea infections. J Vet Diagn Invest 2002;14:303307.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Fulton RW, Hessman B, Johnson BJ, et al. Evaluation of diagnostic tests used for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus and prevalence of subtypes 1a, 1b, and 2a in persistently infected cattle entering a feedlot. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:578584.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Reproductive tract disease associated with inoculation of pregnant white-tailed deer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

View More View Less
  • 1 Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010
  • | 2 Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Science, Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007
  • | 4 Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010
  • | 5 Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA 50010
  • | 6 Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Department, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583

Abstract

Objective—To inoculate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the sixth or seventh week of gestation with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and observe for signs of reproductive tract disease during a 182-day period.

Animals—10 pregnant white-tailed deer (8 seronegative and 2 seropositive [control deer] for BVDV).

Procedures—Deer were inoculated with 1 of 2 deer-derived BVDV strains (RO3-20663 or RO3-24272). Serum anti-BVDV antibody titers were determined prior to and 21 or 35 days after inoculation. Virus isolation (VI) procedures were performed on tissues from fetuses and does that died and on blood samples collected from live fawns. Ear notch specimens obtained from live fawns were assessed by use of BVDV antigen-capture ELISA (ACE).

Results—Both RO3-20663–inoculated seropositive deer gave birth to apparently normal fawns. Among the RO3-24272–inoculated seronegative deer, 1 died, and 1 aborted and 1 resorbed their fetuses; among the RO3-20663–inoculated seronegative deer, 3 died, 1 aborted its fetus, and 1 gave birth to 2 fawns that were likely persistently infected. On the basis of VI and ACE results, those 2 fawns were positive for BVDV; both had no detectable neutralizing anti-BVDV antibodies in serum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reproductive tract disease that developed in pregnant white-tailed deer following BVDV inoculation was similar to that which develops in BVDV-exposed cattle. Methods developed for BVDV detection in cattle (VI, immunohistochemical evaluations, and ACE) can be applied in assessments of white-tailed deer. Fawns from does that had serum anti-BVDV antibodies prior to inoculation were protected against BVDV infection in utero.

Abstract

Objective—To inoculate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the sixth or seventh week of gestation with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and observe for signs of reproductive tract disease during a 182-day period.

Animals—10 pregnant white-tailed deer (8 seronegative and 2 seropositive [control deer] for BVDV).

Procedures—Deer were inoculated with 1 of 2 deer-derived BVDV strains (RO3-20663 or RO3-24272). Serum anti-BVDV antibody titers were determined prior to and 21 or 35 days after inoculation. Virus isolation (VI) procedures were performed on tissues from fetuses and does that died and on blood samples collected from live fawns. Ear notch specimens obtained from live fawns were assessed by use of BVDV antigen-capture ELISA (ACE).

Results—Both RO3-20663–inoculated seropositive deer gave birth to apparently normal fawns. Among the RO3-24272–inoculated seronegative deer, 1 died, and 1 aborted and 1 resorbed their fetuses; among the RO3-20663–inoculated seronegative deer, 3 died, 1 aborted its fetus, and 1 gave birth to 2 fawns that were likely persistently infected. On the basis of VI and ACE results, those 2 fawns were positive for BVDV; both had no detectable neutralizing anti-BVDV antibodies in serum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reproductive tract disease that developed in pregnant white-tailed deer following BVDV inoculation was similar to that which develops in BVDV-exposed cattle. Methods developed for BVDV detection in cattle (VI, immunohistochemical evaluations, and ACE) can be applied in assessments of white-tailed deer. Fawns from does that had serum anti-BVDV antibodies prior to inoculation were protected against BVDV infection in utero.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Driskell's present address is Veterinary Pathology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

The authors thank Bruce Gray, Nathan Hansen, Ryan Whipple, Rachel Renshaw, Johann Theil, Dr. Jean Laufer, and Patricia Federico for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ridpath.