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Evaluation of induction of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome in gnotobiotic pigs with negative results for porcine circovirus type 2

Steven Krakowka DVM, PhD1, Catherine Hartunian BS2, Alexander Hamberg DVM3, David Shoup DVM, PhD4, Michael Rings DVM, MS5, Yan Zhang DVM, PhD6, Gordon Allan PhD7, and John A. Ellis DVM, PhD8
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 4 8061 Five Points Rd, Smithville, OH 44677
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 6 The Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Ohio Department of Agriculture, 8995 E Main St, Reynoldsburg, OH 43068
  • | 7 Queens University Belfast and Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, BT4 3SD, Northern Ireland
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) could be experimentally induced in gnotobiotic swine.

Sample Population—Plasma samples from 27 sows and 20 conventional weaned piglets were obtained, and 30 gnotobiotic pigs were used in experiments.

Procedures—3 experiments were conducted. Groups of 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with pooled plasma samples obtained from healthy feeder pigs in a herd that was in the initial phases of an outbreak of respiratory disease; gross and histologic lesions of PDNS were detected in the inoculated pigs. In a second experiment, 2- and 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and with PRRSV-negative tissue homogenate containing genogroup 1 torque teno virus (g1-TTV). Lesions of PDNS were detected.

Results—Pigs inoculated with pooled plasma or the combination of tissue-culture–origin PRRSV and g1-TTV tissue homogenate developed systemic hemostatic defects, bilaterally symmetric cutaneous hemorrhages, generalized edema, icterus, bilaterally symmetric renal cortical hemorrhage, dermal vasculitis with hemorrhage, and interstitial pneumonia consistent with a clinical and pathologic diagnosis of PDNS. The PRRSV RNAs and g1-TTV DNAs were detected in plasma; all pigs seroconverted to PRRSV, and all had negative results for porcine circovirus type 2 when tested by use of PCR assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that PDNS is a manifestation of disseminated intravascular coagulation in swine. For the experimental conditions reported here, combined infection with g1-TTV and PRRSV was implicated in the genesis of these lesions.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) could be experimentally induced in gnotobiotic swine.

Sample Population—Plasma samples from 27 sows and 20 conventional weaned piglets were obtained, and 30 gnotobiotic pigs were used in experiments.

Procedures—3 experiments were conducted. Groups of 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with pooled plasma samples obtained from healthy feeder pigs in a herd that was in the initial phases of an outbreak of respiratory disease; gross and histologic lesions of PDNS were detected in the inoculated pigs. In a second experiment, 2- and 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and with PRRSV-negative tissue homogenate containing genogroup 1 torque teno virus (g1-TTV). Lesions of PDNS were detected.

Results—Pigs inoculated with pooled plasma or the combination of tissue-culture–origin PRRSV and g1-TTV tissue homogenate developed systemic hemostatic defects, bilaterally symmetric cutaneous hemorrhages, generalized edema, icterus, bilaterally symmetric renal cortical hemorrhage, dermal vasculitis with hemorrhage, and interstitial pneumonia consistent with a clinical and pathologic diagnosis of PDNS. The PRRSV RNAs and g1-TTV DNAs were detected in plasma; all pigs seroconverted to PRRSV, and all had negative results for porcine circovirus type 2 when tested by use of PCR assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that PDNS is a manifestation of disseminated intravascular coagulation in swine. For the experimental conditions reported here, combined infection with g1-TTV and PRRSV was implicated in the genesis of these lesions.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service (R01 A1053120).

The authors thank Susan S. Ringler, Judith Younger, Sara Schmitz, and Amy Davis for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ellis.