• 1.

    Carroll GL, Howe LB, Slater MR, et al. Evaluation of analgesia provided by postoperative administration of butorphanol to cats undergoing onychectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:246250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Romans CW, Gordon WJ, Robinson DA, et al. Effect of postoperative analgesic protocol on limb function following onychectomy in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:8993.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hewson CJ, Dohoo IR, Lemke KA. Perioperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians in 2001. Can Vet J 2006;47:352359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Dohoo SE, Dohoo IR. Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians. Can Vet J 1996;37:546551.

  • 5.

    Capner CA, Lascelles BD, Waterman-Pearson AE. Current British veterinary attitudes to perioperative analgesia for dogs. Vet Rec 1999;24:9599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Hugonnard M, Leblond A, Keroack S, et al. Attitudes and concerns of French veterinarians towards pain and analgesia in dogs and cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004;31:154163.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hansen B, Hardie E. Prescription and use of analgesics in dogs and cats in a veterinary teaching hospital: 258 cases (1983–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:14851494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gellasch KL, Kruse-Elliott KT, Osmond CS, et al. Comparison of transdermal administration of fentanyl versus intramuscular administration of butorphanol for analgesia after onychectomy in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:10201024.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Carroll GL, Howe LB, Peterson KD. Analgesic efficacy of pre-operative administration of meloxicam or butorphanol in onychectomized cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:913919.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lascelles BD, Robertson SA. Use of thermal threshold response to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of butorphanol in cats. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:10851089.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sawyer DC, Rech RH. Analgesia and behavioral effects of butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine in the cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1987;23:438446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ansah OB, Vainio O, Hellsten C, et al. Postoperative pain control in cats: clinical trials with medetomidine and butorphanol. Vet Surg 2002;31:99103.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Lascelles BDX, et al. Changes in thermal threshold response in eight cats after administration of buprenorphine, butorphanol, and morphine. Vet Rec 2003;153:462465.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Johnson JA, Robertson SA, Pypendop BH. Antinociceptive effects of butorphanol, buprenorphine, or both, administered intramuscularly in cats. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:699703.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lascelles BD, Robertson SA. Antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone, butorphanol, or the combination in cats. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:190195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dixon MJ, Taylor PM, Steagall PVM, et al. Development of a pressure nociceptive threshold testing device for evaluation of analgesia in cats. Res Vet Sci 2007;82:8592.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Papich MG. Butorphanol. In: Saunders handbook of veterinary drugs. 2nd ed. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, 2007;5960.

  • 18.

    Plumb DC. Plumb's veterinary drug handbook. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005;103105.

  • 19.

    Hussain MA, Aungst BJ, Koval CA, et al. Improved buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists with bitterless pro-drugs. Pharm Res 1988;5:615618.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gillis JC, Benfield P, Goa KL. Transnasal butorphanol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in acute pain management. Drugs 1995;50:157175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Weinberg DS, Inturrisi CE, Reidenberg B, et al. Sublingual absorption of selected opioid analgesics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988;44:335342.

  • 22.

    Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Sear JW. Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration. Vet Rec 2003;152:675678.

  • 23.

    Brown BA-S, Hamed E. Oral transmucosal delivery. Drug Deliv Technol 2007;7:4245.

  • 24.

    Sellon DC, Monroe VL, Roberts MC, et al. Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of butorphanol administered by single intravenous injection or continuous intravenous infusion in horses. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:183189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Sellon DC, Roberts MC, Blikslager AT, et al. Effects of continuous rate intravenous infusion of butorphanol on physiologic and outcome variables in horses after celiotomy. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:555563.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gibaldi M, Perrier P. Pharmacokinetics. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 1982;1473.

  • 27.

    Gabrielsson J, Weiner D. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis: concepts and applications. 3rd ed. Stockholm: Apotekarsocieteten, 2001;263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Troncy E, Besner JG, Charbonneau R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of epidural butorphanol in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1996;19:268273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Court MH, Dodman NH, Levine HD, et al. Pharmacokinetics and milk residues of butorphanol in dairy cows after single intravenous administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1992;15:2835.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Portnoy LG, Hustead DR. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:541543.

  • 31.

    Carroll GL, Boothe DM, Hartsfield SM, et al. Pharmacokinetics and selected behavioral responses to butorphanol and its metabolites in goats following intravenous and intramuscular injection. Vet Anaesth Analg 2001;28:188195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Carroll GL, Boothe DM, Hartsfield SM, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of butorphanol in llamas after intravenous and intramuscular administration. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:12631267.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol in cats after intramuscular and buccal transmucosal administration

View More View Less
  • 1 Veterinary Surgical Associates, 1410 Monument Blvd, Ste 100, Concord, CA 94520
  • | 2 Veterinary Surgical Associates, 1410 Monument Blvd, Ste 100, Concord, CA 94520
  • | 3 Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol in cats following IM and buccal transmucosal (BTM) administration, to determine the relative bioavailability of butorphanol following BTM administration, and to extrapolate a plasma concentration associated with antinociception on the basis of existing data from pharmacologic studies of butorphanol in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Following IM or BTM butorphanol tartrate (0.4 mg/kg) administration to cats in a 2-way crossover trial, plasma samples were obtained from blood collected via a central venous catheter during a 9-hour period. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Data from 1 cat contained outliers and were excluded from pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean ± SD terminal half-life of butorphanol for the remaining 5 cats was 6.3 ± 2.8 hours and 5.2 ± 1.7 hours for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Peak plasma butorphanol concentrations were 132.0 and 34.4 ng/mL for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Time to maximal plasma concentration was 0.35 and 1.1 hours for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Extent of butorphanol absorption was 37.16% following BTM application. On the basis of data from extant pharmacologic studies of butorphanol in cats, mean ± SD duration of antinociception was 155 ± 130 minutes. The estimated plasma concentration corresponding to this time point was 45 ng/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, IM butorphanol administration at 0.4 mg/kg maintained a plasma concentration of > 45 ng/mL for 2.7 ± 2.2 hours, whereas BTM administration at the same dose was not effective at maintaining plasma concentrations at > 45 ng/mL.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol in cats following IM and buccal transmucosal (BTM) administration, to determine the relative bioavailability of butorphanol following BTM administration, and to extrapolate a plasma concentration associated with antinociception on the basis of existing data from pharmacologic studies of butorphanol in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Following IM or BTM butorphanol tartrate (0.4 mg/kg) administration to cats in a 2-way crossover trial, plasma samples were obtained from blood collected via a central venous catheter during a 9-hour period. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Data from 1 cat contained outliers and were excluded from pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean ± SD terminal half-life of butorphanol for the remaining 5 cats was 6.3 ± 2.8 hours and 5.2 ± 1.7 hours for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Peak plasma butorphanol concentrations were 132.0 and 34.4 ng/mL for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Time to maximal plasma concentration was 0.35 and 1.1 hours for IM and BTM administration, respectively. Extent of butorphanol absorption was 37.16% following BTM application. On the basis of data from extant pharmacologic studies of butorphanol in cats, mean ± SD duration of antinociception was 155 ± 130 minutes. The estimated plasma concentration corresponding to this time point was 45 ng/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, IM butorphanol administration at 0.4 mg/kg maintained a plasma concentration of > 45 ng/mL for 2.7 ± 2.2 hours, whereas BTM administration at the same dose was not effective at maintaining plasma concentrations at > 45 ng/mL.

Contributor Notes

Supported by a grant from the American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

The authors thank Delta Dise, Jessica Clark, and Dr. Sharon Gottfried for their technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Wells.