• 1.

    Mecham JO. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus: does it pose a risk to US livestock?, in Proceedings. 100th Annu Meet US Anim Health Assoc 1997;1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Nettles VF, Hylton SA, Stallknecht DE, et al. Epidemiology of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in wildlife in the USA. In: Walton TE, Osburn BI, eds. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc, 1992;238248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    MacLachlan NJ, Osburn BI. Impact of bluetongue virus infection on the international movement and trade of ruminants. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:13461349.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Stallknecht DE, Howerth EW. Epidemiology of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in wildlife: surveillance methods. Vet Ital 2004;40:203207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Pearson JE, Gustafson GA, Shafer AL, et al. Distribution of bluetongue in the United States. In: Walton TE, Osburn BI, eds. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc, 1992;128139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Ostlund EN, Moser KM, Johnson DJ, et al. Distribution of bluetongue in the United States of America, 1991–2002. Vet Ital 2004;40:8388.

  • 7.

    Metcalf HE, Luedke AJ, Jochim MM. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in cattle. In: Walton TE, Osburn BI, eds. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc, 1992;222237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Abdy MJ, Howerth EE, Stallknecht DE. Experimental infection of calves with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:621626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Aradaib IE, Sawyer MM, Osburn BI. Experimental epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in calves: virologic and serologic studies. J Vet Diagn Invest 1994;6:489492.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bowen RA. Serologic responses of calves to sequential infections with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes. Am J Vet Res 1987;48:14491452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gibbs EP, Lawman MJ. Infection of British deer and farm animals with epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus. J Comp Pathol 1977;87:335343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Odiawa G, Blue JL, Tyler DE, et al. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in ruminants in Georgia: survey by serotest and virologic isolation. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:21932196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Shapiro JL, Wiegers A, Dulac GC, et al. A survey of cattle for antibodies against bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses in British Columbia and southwestern Alberta in 1987. Can J Vet Res 1991;55:203204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Boyer TC, Ward MP, Wallace RL, et al. Regional seroprevalence of bluetongue virus in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:12121219.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    National Agriculture Statistics Service. 2002 census of agriculture. Available at: www.nass.usda.gov/Census_of_Agriculture/index.asp#top. Accessed Jan 10, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Purse BV, Mellor PS, Rogers DJ, et al. Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005;3:171181.

  • 17.

    Wittmann EJ, Mellor PS, Baylis M. Using climate data to map the potential distribution of Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Europe. Rev Sci Tech 2001;20:731740.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Wittmann EJ, Mello PS, Baylis M. Effect of temperature on the transmission of orbiviruses by the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Med Vet Entomol 2002;16:147156.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    USDA/National Resources Conservation Service National Cartography and Geospatial Center. Processed annual minimum temperature, 1971–2000. Available at: datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov/GatewayHome.html. Accessed Jan 10, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Zhou E, Afshar A. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus of deer (EHDV) and bluetongue virus by immunisation of mice with EHDV recombinant VP7 antigen. Res Vet Sci 1999;66:247252.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Anselin L. Local indicators of spatial association—LISA. Geogr Anal 1995;27:93115.

  • 22.

    Anselin L, Syabri I, Kho Y. GeoDa: an introduction to spatial data analysis. Geogr Anal 2006;38:522.

  • 23.

    Berke O. Exploratory disease mapping: kriging the spatial risk function from regional count data. Int J Health Geogr 2004;3:18.

  • 24.

    Ward MP. Spread of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis during the 2002 Texas epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006;74:10901095.

  • 25.

    Assuncao RM, Reis EA. A new proposal to adjust Moran's I for population density. Stat Med 1999;18:21472162.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Marshall RJ. Mapping disease and mortality rates using empirical Bayes estimators. J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 1991;40:283294.

  • 27.

    Stallknecht DE, Nettles VF, Rollor EA, et al. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus serotype distribution in white-tailed deer in Georgia. J Wildl Dis 1995;31:331338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Ward MP, Carpenter TE. Simulation modeling of the effect of climatic factors on bluetongue virus infection in Australian cattle herds. II. Model experimentation. Prev Vet Med 1996;27:1322.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Exploratory spatial data analysis of regional seroprevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in cattle from Illinois and Indiana

Tim C. Boyer MPH1, Michael P. Ward BVSc, MPVM, PhD2, Richard L. Wallace DVM, MS3, En-Min Zhou MD, PhD4, and Randall S. Singer DVM, MPVM, PhD5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against the serogroup of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) and describe spatial distribution of antibodies against EHDV among cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—9,414 serum samples collected from cattle in 60 herds over 3 transmission seasons.

Procedures—Serum samples were tested for antibodies against EHDV by use of an ELISA. Seroprevalence for 4 zones covering the length of Illinois and parts of Indiana were estimated. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone (1 through 4), age (yearling, adult), herd type (beef, dairy), transmission season (2000 to 2002), and zone by year interaction. Isopleth maps of seroprevalence at the herd level were produced.

Results—Antibodies against EHDV were detected in 1,110 (11.8%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 15.3%, 13.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence was highest in the southernmost zone and lowest in the northernmost zone, but risk of seropositivity for EHDV among and within zones varied by year. Clusters of high seroprevalence in the south, low seroprevalence in the north, and outliers of high and low seroprevalence were detected. Risk mapping revealed areas of higher seroprevalence extending northward along the western and eastern ends of the study region.

Conclusions—Seroprevalence of antibodies against EHDV in cattle was higher in the south than north; however, local complexities existed that were not observed in a serosurvey of antibodies against bluetongue virus from the same cattle population.

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against the serogroup of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) and describe spatial distribution of antibodies against EHDV among cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—9,414 serum samples collected from cattle in 60 herds over 3 transmission seasons.

Procedures—Serum samples were tested for antibodies against EHDV by use of an ELISA. Seroprevalence for 4 zones covering the length of Illinois and parts of Indiana were estimated. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone (1 through 4), age (yearling, adult), herd type (beef, dairy), transmission season (2000 to 2002), and zone by year interaction. Isopleth maps of seroprevalence at the herd level were produced.

Results—Antibodies against EHDV were detected in 1,110 (11.8%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 15.3%, 13.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence was highest in the southernmost zone and lowest in the northernmost zone, but risk of seropositivity for EHDV among and within zones varied by year. Clusters of high seroprevalence in the south, low seroprevalence in the north, and outliers of high and low seroprevalence were detected. Risk mapping revealed areas of higher seroprevalence extending northward along the western and eastern ends of the study region.

Conclusions—Seroprevalence of antibodies against EHDV in cattle was higher in the south than north; however, local complexities existed that were not observed in a serosurvey of antibodies against bluetongue virus from the same cattle population.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Ward's present address is Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia.

Dr. Zhou's present address is Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shangdong Agriculture University, Taian, Shangdong Province, China.

Supported in part by the National Research Initiative of the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, grant numbers 2001-35204-10153 and 2001-35204-14607, and by a grant from the Council for Food and Agricultural Research, Illinois Department of Agriculture. Dr. Singer is a University of Minnesota McKnight Land-Grant Professor.

Address correspondence to Dr. Singer.