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Induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane in bald eagles

Priscilla H. JoynerWildlife Center of Virginia, PO Box 1557, Waynesboro, VA 22980.

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Michael P. JonesDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Daniel WardOffice of Research and Graduate Studies, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Rebecca E. GompfDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Nancy ZagayaDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Jonathan M. SleemanWildlife Center of Virginia, PO Box 1557, Waynesboro, VA 22980.

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Abstract

Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in bald eagles.

Animals—17 healthy adult bald eagles.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered in oxygen via a facemask in a crossover design with 4 weeks between treatments. Eagles were intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary measurements. Time to induction, extubation, and recovery, as well as smoothness of recovery, were recorded.

Results—Administration of sevoflurane resulted in a significantly quicker recovery, compared with isoflurane. Temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate significantly decreased over time, whereas systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly increased over time with each treatment. Temperature, heart rate, SAP, DAP, and MAP were significantly higher with isoflurane. Blood pH significantly decreased, whereas PaCO2 significantly increased over time with each treatment. Bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations significantly increased over time with each treatment; however, there was a significant time-treatment interaction. The PaO2 and arterial oxygen saturation increased over time with isoflurane and decreased over time with sevoflurane with a significant time-treatment interaction. Six eagles developed cardiac arrhythmias with isoflurane, as did 4 with sevoflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflurane and sevoflurane administration resulted in smooth, rapid induction of and recovery from anesthesia similar to other species. Isoflurane administration resulted in tachycardia, hypertension, and more arrhythmias, compared with sevoflurane. Sevoflurane was associated with fewer adverse effects and may be particularly beneficial in compromised bald eagles.

Abstract

Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in bald eagles.

Animals—17 healthy adult bald eagles.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered in oxygen via a facemask in a crossover design with 4 weeks between treatments. Eagles were intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary measurements. Time to induction, extubation, and recovery, as well as smoothness of recovery, were recorded.

Results—Administration of sevoflurane resulted in a significantly quicker recovery, compared with isoflurane. Temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate significantly decreased over time, whereas systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly increased over time with each treatment. Temperature, heart rate, SAP, DAP, and MAP were significantly higher with isoflurane. Blood pH significantly decreased, whereas PaCO2 significantly increased over time with each treatment. Bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations significantly increased over time with each treatment; however, there was a significant time-treatment interaction. The PaO2 and arterial oxygen saturation increased over time with isoflurane and decreased over time with sevoflurane with a significant time-treatment interaction. Six eagles developed cardiac arrhythmias with isoflurane, as did 4 with sevoflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflurane and sevoflurane administration resulted in smooth, rapid induction of and recovery from anesthesia similar to other species. Isoflurane administration resulted in tachycardia, hypertension, and more arrhythmias, compared with sevoflurane. Sevoflurane was associated with fewer adverse effects and may be particularly beneficial in compromised bald eagles.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Joyner's present address is Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium, One Wild Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15206. Dr. Ward's present address is Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Center, 121 Northville Rd, Bridgeton, NJ 08302. Dr. Sleeman's present address is Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 4010 W Broad St, Richmond, VA 23230-1104.

Supported by the Morris Animal Foundation (Grant D04ZO-47), the American Eagle Foundation, and the Wildlife Center of Virginia.

The authors thank Drs. L. Brazelton, T. Doherty, T. Hadley, E. Ramsay, J. Schumacher, and J. Sykes for assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Joyner.