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Retention of acetaminophen in an in vitro model of solid-phase gastric emptying of animals

Cathy A. WyseDepartment of Anatomy, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS2 8EJ, England
Division of Companion Animal Science, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1QH, Scotland

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Will G. MarshallDivision of Companion Animal Science, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1QH, Scotland

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Tom PrestonScottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow, G75 OQF, Scotland

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Philippa S. YamDivision of Companion Animal Science, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1QH, Scotland

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Abstract

Objective—To apply an in vitro model for assessment of the solid-phase binding capacity of acetaminophen and thus assess the reliability of this marker for evaluation of solid-phase gastric emptying in vivo in animals.

Sample Population—4 test meals.

Procedures—A spectrophotometric method for detection of acetaminophen was validated and applied for assessment of the percentage retention of acetaminophen in the solid phase of 4 test meals. The gastric milieu was simulated by incubating each meal in artificial gastric juice for 2 hours in a shaking water bath maintained at 37°C. Solid-phase retention was then assessed 3 times by measuring the amount of acetaminophen that had leached into the liquid phase.

Results—Acetaminophen was poorly retained in the solid phase of all the test meals examined in the study. There was also a large degree of variability in the percentage retention for each meal when the experiment was repeated 3 times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results of this in vitro study confirmed that acetaminophen may not be an appropriate marker of solid-phase gastric emptying. The acetaminophen gastric emptying test should be applied only for the assessment of liquid-phase emptying in animals.

Abstract

Objective—To apply an in vitro model for assessment of the solid-phase binding capacity of acetaminophen and thus assess the reliability of this marker for evaluation of solid-phase gastric emptying in vivo in animals.

Sample Population—4 test meals.

Procedures—A spectrophotometric method for detection of acetaminophen was validated and applied for assessment of the percentage retention of acetaminophen in the solid phase of 4 test meals. The gastric milieu was simulated by incubating each meal in artificial gastric juice for 2 hours in a shaking water bath maintained at 37°C. Solid-phase retention was then assessed 3 times by measuring the amount of acetaminophen that had leached into the liquid phase.

Results—Acetaminophen was poorly retained in the solid phase of all the test meals examined in the study. There was also a large degree of variability in the percentage retention for each meal when the experiment was repeated 3 times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results of this in vitro study confirmed that acetaminophen may not be an appropriate marker of solid-phase gastric emptying. The acetaminophen gastric emptying test should be applied only for the assessment of liquid-phase emptying in animals.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Marshall's present address is Barr & MacMillan, 16 Kilmarnock Rd, Mauchline, Ayrshire, KA5 5DE, Scotland.

Dr. Marshall was supported by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow; Dr. Wyse was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; and Dr. Yam was supported by Hills Pet Nutrition Limited.

Address correspondence to Dr. Wyse.