• 1

    Zontine WJ, Weitkamp RA, Lippincott CL. Redefined type of elbow dysplasia involving calcified flexor tendons attached to the medial humeral epicondyle in three dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;194:10821085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Walker TM. A redefined type of elbow dysplasia in the dog—2 cases. Can Vet J 1998;39:573575.

  • 3

    Wind AP. Elbow dysplasia. In:Slatter D, ed.Textbook of small animal surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993;19661977.

  • 4

    Boulay JP. Fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1998;28:5174.

  • 5

    Hornof WJ, Wind AP, Wallack ST, et al. Canine elbow dysplasia. The early radiographic detection of fragmentation of the coronoid process. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2000;30:257266,v.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Kirberger RM, Fourie SL. Elbow dysplasia in the dog: pathophysiology, diagnosis and control. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1998;69:4354.

  • 7

    Olsson SE. The early diagnosis of fragmented coronoid process and osteochondritis dissicans of the canine elbow joint. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1983;19:616626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Read RA, Armstrong SJ, O'Keefe JD, et al. Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process of the ulna in dogs: a study of 109 cases. J Small Anim Pract 1990;31:330334.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Berzon JL. Osteochondritis dissecans in the dog: diagnosis and therapy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1979;175:796799.

  • 10

    Grondalen J, Grondalen T. Arthrosis in the elbow joint of young rapidly growing dogs. V. A pathoanatomical investigation. Nord Vet Med 1981;33:116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Fox SM, Walker AM. Identifying and treating the primary manifestations of osteochondrosis of the elbow. Vet Med 1993;88:132146.

  • 12

    Burmester E, Mendoza AS, Gmelin E. Computerized tomography of the elbow joint. Rofo 1985;143:671676.

  • 13

    Zwaan M, Borgis KJ, Weiss HD, et al. CT diagnosis of the elbow joint. Radiologe 1990;30:106112.

  • 14

    Reichle JK, Park RD, Bahr AM. Computed tomographic findings of dogs with cubital joint lameness. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000;41:125130.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Reichle JK, Snaps F. The elbow. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 1999;14:177186.

  • 16

    de Rycke LM, Gielen IM, vanBree H, et al. Computed tomography of the elbow joint in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:14001407.

  • 17

    Carpenter LG, Schwarz PD, Lowry JE, et al. Comparison of radiologic imaging techniques for diagnosis of fragmented medial coronoid process of the cubital joint in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:7883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Judy PF, Swensson RG. Detection of small focal lesions in CT images: effects of reconstruction filters and visual display windows. Br J Radiol 1985;58:137145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Judy PF, Swensson RG. Detectability of lesions of various sizes on CT images. Soc Photo Opt Instrum Eng 1985;3842.

  • 20

    Judy PF, Swensson RG. Display thresholding of images and observer detection performance. J Opt Soc Am A 1987;4:954965.

  • 21

    Judy PF, Swensson RG, Szulc M. Lesion detection and signal-to-noise ratio in CT images. Med Phys 1981;8:1323.

  • 22

    Hanson KM. Variations in task and the ideal observer. Soc Photo Opt Instrum Eng 1983;419:6067.

  • 23

    Seltzer SE, Swensson RG, Judy PF, et al. Size discrimination in computed tomographic images. Effects of feature contrast and display window. Invest Radiol 1988;23:455462.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Gemmill TJ, Mellor DJ, Clements DN, et al. Evaluation of elbow incongruency using reconstructed CT in dogs suffering fragmented coronoid process. J Small Anim Pract 2005;46:327333.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Welsh EM, Gettinby G, Nolan A. Comparison of a visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale for assessment of lameness, using sheep as a model. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:976983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Twible DA, Judy PF, Swensson RG. Effects of the CT display window on detectability of large and small lesions. Soc Photo Opt Instrum Eng 1984;204207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Warren RC. Detectability of low-contrast features in computed tomography. Phys Med Biol 1984;29:113.

  • 28

    Joseph PM, Hilal SK, Schultz RA, et al. Clinical and experimental investigation of a smoothed CT reconstruction algorithm. Radiology 1980;134:507516.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Hemmingsson A, Jung B, Naslund L, et al. Perceptability of experimental and clinical lesions in the CT image with and without image processing. Acta Radiol Diag (Stockh) 1981;22:6776.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Tidwell AS, Jones JC. Advanced imaging concepts: a pictorial glossary of CT and MRI technology. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 1999;14:65111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Jones JC, Wilson ME, Bartels JE. A review of high resolution computed tomography and a proposed technique for regional examination of the canine lumbosacral spine. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1994;35:339346.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Stickle RL, Hathcock JT. Interpretation of computed tomographic images. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993;23:417435.

  • 33

    Zisapel N, Nir T. Determination of the minimal clinically significant difference on a patient visual analog sleep quality scale. J Sleep Res 2003;12:291298.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Hudson JT, Slater MR, Taylor L, et al. Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:16341643.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Rohleder JJ, Jones JC, Duncan RB, et al. Comparative performance of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of middle ear disease in 31 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2006;47:4552.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    MacDonald NJ, Burton CA, White RN. Comparison of visual analog and numeric scoring scales for assessing intraoperative mesenteric portovenography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43:534540.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Mason DR, Schulz KS, Samii VF, et al. Sensitivity of radiographic evaluation of radio-ulnar incongruence in the dog in vitro. Vet Surg 2002;31:125132.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Maki K, Liinamo AE, Ojala M. Estimates of genetic parameters for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish Rottweilers. J Anim Sci 2000;78:11411148.

  • 39

    Warren RC, Pandya YV. Effect of window width and viewing distance in CT display. Br J Radiol 1982;55:7274.

  • 40

    Hanlon GF. Normal and abnormal bone growth in the dog. J Am Vet Radiol Soc 1962;3:1316.

  • 41

    Riser WH, Shirer JF. Normal and abnormal growth of the distal foreleg in large and giant dogs. J Am Vet Radiol Soc 1965;6:5064.

  • 42

    Breit S, Kunzel W, Seiler S. Variation in the ossification process of the anconeal and medial coronoid processes of the canine ulna. Res Vet Sci 2004;77:916.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Wind AP. Incidence and radiographic appearance of fragmented coronoid process in the Bernese Mountain Dog. California Veterinarian 1982;6:1926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Grondalen J. Arthrosis with special reference to the elbow joint of young rapidly growing dogs. II. Occurrence, clinical and radiographical findings. Nord Vet Med 1979;31:6975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Guthrie S. Use of radiographic scoring technique for the assessment of dogs with elbow osteochondrosis. J Small Anim Pract 1989;30:639644.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Meyer-Lindenberg A, Langhann A, Fehr M, et al. Prevalence of fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in lame adult dogs. Vet Rec 2002;151:230234.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Lang J, Busato A, Baumgartner D, et al. Comparison of two classification protocols in the evaluation of elbow dysplasia in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1998;39:169174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Gemmill TJ, Hammond G, Mellor D, et al. Use of reconstructed computed tomography for the assessment of joint spaces in the canine elbow. J Small Anim Pract 2006;47:6674.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Holsworth IG, Wisner ER, Scherrer WE, et al. Accuracy of computerized tomographic evaluation of canine radio-ulnar incongruence in vitro. Vet Surg 2005;34:108113.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Kramer A, Holsworth IG, Wisner ER, et al. Computed tomographic evaluation of canine radioulnar incongruence in vivo. Vet Surg 2006;35:2429.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Snaps FR, Saunders JH, Park RD, et al. Comparison of spin echo, gradient echo and fat saturation magnetic resonance imaging sequences for imaging the canine elbow. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1998;39:518523.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Eckstein F, Adam C, Sittek H, et al. Non-invasive determination of cartilage thickness throughout joint surfaces using magnetic resonance imaging. J Biomech 1997;30:285289.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of computed tomography display window and image plane on diagnostic certainty for characteristics of dysplastic elbow joints in dogs

Tonya C. TrombleeDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Search for other papers by Tonya C. Tromblee in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Jeryl C. JonesDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Search for other papers by Jeryl C. Jones in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Anne M. BahrDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

Search for other papers by Anne M. Bahr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Peter K. ShiresDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Search for other papers by Peter K. Shires in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
, and
Susanne ArefAref Consulting Group LLC, 420 Eastern Ave, DeLand, IL 61839

Search for other papers by Susanne Aref in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

Objective—To test the effects of computed tomography (CT) image plane and window settings on diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics associated with dysplastic elbow joints (elbow joint dysplasia) in dogs and to provide optimal display guidelines for these CT characteristics.

Sample Population—CT images of 50 dysplastic elbow joints from 49 lame dogs and 10 elbow joints from 5 sound dogs.

Procedures—CT image data were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Each plane was examined by use of 3 Hounsfield unit (HU) window settings. Two veterinary radiologists independently evaluated sets of CT images for evidence of 7 CT characteristics. Effect of elbow joint status, image plane, and window settings on diagnostic certainty for these CT characteristics was tested by use of a visual analogue scale.

Results—Diagnostic certainty for abnormalities of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and radial incisure was highest in the transverse plane, subchondral defects or sclerosis of the trochlea humeri was highest in the dorsal plane, and joint incongruity was highest in the sagittal plane. Certainty for hypoattenuating subchondral defects or fissures was highest at 2,500 or 3,500 HUs, whereas certainty for subchondral sclerosis was highest at 1,500 HUs and lowest at 3,500 HUs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics of elbow joint dysplasia in dogs was affected by image display variables. Diagnostic certainty for altered subchondral bone density was primarily influenced by window settings, whereas structural MCP abnormalities and joint incongruity were influenced most by image plane.

Abstract

Objective—To test the effects of computed tomography (CT) image plane and window settings on diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics associated with dysplastic elbow joints (elbow joint dysplasia) in dogs and to provide optimal display guidelines for these CT characteristics.

Sample Population—CT images of 50 dysplastic elbow joints from 49 lame dogs and 10 elbow joints from 5 sound dogs.

Procedures—CT image data were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Each plane was examined by use of 3 Hounsfield unit (HU) window settings. Two veterinary radiologists independently evaluated sets of CT images for evidence of 7 CT characteristics. Effect of elbow joint status, image plane, and window settings on diagnostic certainty for these CT characteristics was tested by use of a visual analogue scale.

Results—Diagnostic certainty for abnormalities of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and radial incisure was highest in the transverse plane, subchondral defects or sclerosis of the trochlea humeri was highest in the dorsal plane, and joint incongruity was highest in the sagittal plane. Certainty for hypoattenuating subchondral defects or fissures was highest at 2,500 or 3,500 HUs, whereas certainty for subchondral sclerosis was highest at 1,500 HUs and lowest at 3,500 HUs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics of elbow joint dysplasia in dogs was affected by image display variables. Diagnostic certainty for altered subchondral bone density was primarily influenced by window settings, whereas structural MCP abnormalities and joint incongruity were influenced most by image plane.

Contributor Notes

Dr Tromblee's present address is Massachusetts Veterinary Referral Hospital, 20 Cabot Rd, Woburn, MA 01801.

Supported by the Virginia Veterinary Medical Association Veterinary Memorial Fund.

Presented in part at the American College of Veterinary Radiologists Annual Scientific Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, August 2006.

The authors thank Dr. George Lees, Dr. Sharon Kerwin, and Galen Pahl for technical assistance and Jennifer Hanke and Donna Hanover for assistance with computed tomography.

Address correspondence to Dr. Tromblee.