• 1

    Szenci O, Taverne MA, Bakonyi S, et al. Comparison between pre- and postnatal acid-base status of calves and their perinatal mortality. Vet Q 1988;10:140144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Eigenmann UJE, Grunert E, Born E. Untersuchungen über den Einfluss der Schnittentbindung auf den Säurebasenhaushalt sowie die Plasmaglukosekonzentration neugeborener Kälber. Dtsch Tierärztl Wochenschr 1981;88:433437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Kasari TR, Naylor JM. Clinical evaluation of sodium bicarbonate, sodium L-lactate, and sodium acetate for the treatment of acidosis in diarrheic calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985;187:392397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Berchtold J. Intravenous fluid therapy of calves. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1999;15:505531.

  • 5

    Bleul U, Bachofner C, Stocker H, et al. Comparison of sodium bicarbonate and carbicarb for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in newborn calves. Vet Rec 2005;156:202206.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Herfen K, Bostedt H. Zum Säure-Basen-Status bei neugeborenen kälbern in den ersten Lebenstagen unter Berücksichtigung differenter Vitalitätssituationen. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wochenschr 1999;112:166171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Constable PD. Fluid and electrolyte therapy in ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2003;19:557598.

  • 8

    Grove-White DH, Michell AR. Iatrogenic hypocalcaemia during parenteral fluid therapy of diarrhoeic calves. Vet Rec 2001;149:203207.

  • 9

    Iwabuchi S, Suzuki K, Abe I, et al. Comparison of the effects of isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solutions on acidemic calves experimentally induced by ammonium chloride administration. J Vet Med Sci 2003;65:13691371.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Chew DJ, Leonard M, Muir WW. Effect of sodium-bicarbonate infusion on serum osmolality, electrolyte concentrations, and blood gas tensions in cats. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:1217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Hartsfield SM, Thurmon JC, Corbin JE, et al. Effects of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and lactate on acid-base status in anaesthetized dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1981;4:5161.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Berchtold JF, Constable PD, Smith GW, et al. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:240251.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Arbeiter K. Sectio caesarea. In:Richter RG, ed.Tiergeburtshilfe. Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey Buchverlag, 1993;330338.

  • 14

    Naylor JM, Forsyth GW. The alkalinizing effects of metabolizable bases in the healthy calf. Can J Vet Res 1986;50:509516.

  • 15

    International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Approved IFCC recommendations on the whole blood sampling, transport and storage for simultaneous determination of pH, blood gases and electrolytes. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995;33:247253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Council Directive 98/79/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 October 1998 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. Off J Eur Union Dec 12, 1998;L331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Greenleaf JE, Convertino VA, Mangseth GR. Plasma volume during stress in man: osmolality and red cell volume. J Appl Physiol 1979;47:10311038.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Kasari TR. Metabolic acidosis in calves. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1999;15:473486.

  • 19

    Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status. Strong ion difference theory. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1999;15:447471.

  • 20

    Kasari TR. Weakness in the newborn calf. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1994;10:167180.

  • 21

    Adams R, Garry FB, Aldridge BM, et al. Physiologic differences between twin and single born beef calves in the first two days of life. Cornell Vet 1993;83:1329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Chan WW, Jonker FH, Rausch WD, et al. Plasma-catecholamines and blood-chemistry in newborn calves in relation to different obstetrical procedures and to neonatal outcome. Anim Reprod Sci 1993;34:4354.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Radostits OM, Gay CC, Blood DC, et al. Critical care of the newborn. Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. 9th ed. London: Harcourt Publishers Ltd, 2000;148149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Wirth W. Elektrolyte und Säure-Basen-Haushalt. In:Kraft W, Dürr UM, ed.Klinische Labordiagnostik in der Tiermedizin. 6th ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Schattauer Verlag, 2005;144152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Constable PD, Stampfli HR, Navetat H, et al. Use of a quantitative strong ion approach to determine the mechanism for acid-base abnormalities in sick calves with or without diarrhea. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:581589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Lorenz I, Vogt S. Investigations on the association of D-lactate blood concentrations with the outcome of therapy of acidosis, and with posture and demeanour in young calves with diarrhoea. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2006;53:490494.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Waizenhofer H & Mülling M. Laktat-, Pyruvatund aktuelle pH-Werte im venösen Blut neugeborener Kälber. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wochenschr 1978;91:186188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Bostedt H. Vergleichende Untersuchung über die Entwicklung des Enzymprofiles im Blut von Kälbern und Lämmern in der neonatalen Adaptationsperiode. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wochenschr 1983;96:431438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Kraft W, Dürr UM, Klee W, et al. Leber. In:Kraft W, Dürr UM, ed.Klinische Labordiagnostik in der Tiermedizin. 3th ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Schattauer Verlag, 2005;104119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Rosen HR, Martin P, Goss J, et al. Significance of early amino-transferase elevation after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1998;65:6872.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Adams R, Garry FB, Aldridge BM, et al. Hematologic values in newborn beef calves. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:944950.

  • 32

    Constable PD, Schmall LM, Muir WW III, et al. Hemodynamic response of endotoxemic calves to treatment with small-volume hypertonic saline solution. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:981989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Cambier C, Clerbaux T, Detry B, et al. Effects of intravenous infusions of sodium bicarbonate on blood oxygen binding in calves with diarrhoea. Vet Rec 2005;156:706710.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Cambier C, Clerbaux T, Moreaux B, et al. Blood oxygen binding in calves with naturally occurring diarrhea. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:799804.

Advertisement

Effects of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution on electrolyte concentrations and enzyme activities in newborn calves with respiratory and metabolic acidosis

Ulrich T. BleulDepartment of Farm Animals, Clinic of Reproductive Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Ulrich T. Bleul in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Silvia C. SchwantagDepartment of Farm Animals, Clinic of Reproductive Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Silvia C. Schwantag in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 med vet
, and
Wolfgang K. KähnDepartment of Farm Animals, Clinic of Reproductive Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Wolfgang K. Kähn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Prof Dr med vet

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of electrolytes, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and hemoglobin; activities of some enzymes; and Hct and number of leukocytes and erythrocytes of newborn calves in relation to the degree of acidosis and treatment with a hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution.

Animals—20 acidotic newborn calves with a blood pH < 7.2 and 22 newborn control calves with a blood pH ≥ 7.2.

Procedures—Approximately 10 minutes after birth, acidotic calves were treated by IV administration of 5% NaHCO3 solution. The amount of hypertonic solution infused was dependent on the severity of the acidosis.

Results—Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the mean ± SEM base excess from −8.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L immediately after birth to 0.3 ± 1.1 mmol/L 120 minutes later. During the same period, sodium concentration significantly increased from 145.3 ± 0.8 mmol/L to 147.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L. Mean chloride concentration before NaHCO3 administration was significantly lower in the acidotic calves (99.6 ± 1.1 mmol/L) than in the control calves (104.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L). Calcium concentration in acidotic calves decreased significantly from before to after treatment. Concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus were not affected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of hypertonic NaHCO3 solution to acidotic neonatal calves did not have any adverse effects on plasma concentrations of several commonly measured electrolytes or enzyme activities. The treatment volume used was smaller, compared with that for an isotonic solution, which makes it more practical for use in field settings.

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of electrolytes, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and hemoglobin; activities of some enzymes; and Hct and number of leukocytes and erythrocytes of newborn calves in relation to the degree of acidosis and treatment with a hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution.

Animals—20 acidotic newborn calves with a blood pH < 7.2 and 22 newborn control calves with a blood pH ≥ 7.2.

Procedures—Approximately 10 minutes after birth, acidotic calves were treated by IV administration of 5% NaHCO3 solution. The amount of hypertonic solution infused was dependent on the severity of the acidosis.

Results—Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the mean ± SEM base excess from −8.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L immediately after birth to 0.3 ± 1.1 mmol/L 120 minutes later. During the same period, sodium concentration significantly increased from 145.3 ± 0.8 mmol/L to 147.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L. Mean chloride concentration before NaHCO3 administration was significantly lower in the acidotic calves (99.6 ± 1.1 mmol/L) than in the control calves (104.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L). Calcium concentration in acidotic calves decreased significantly from before to after treatment. Concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus were not affected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of hypertonic NaHCO3 solution to acidotic neonatal calves did not have any adverse effects on plasma concentrations of several commonly measured electrolytes or enzyme activities. The treatment volume used was smaller, compared with that for an isotonic solution, which makes it more practical for use in field settings.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Bleul.