• 1

    Hansen B, Hardie E. Prescription and use of analgesics in dogs and cats in a veterinary teaching hospital: 258 cases (1983–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:14851494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Hewson CJ, Dohoo IR, Lemke KA. Perioperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians in 2001. Can Vet J 2006;47:352359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Wagner AE. Is butorphanol analgesic in dogs and cats? Vet Med 1999;94:346350.

  • 4

    Metz S, Headley R, Star R, et al. I'm confused about using butorphanol and buprenorphine together. Vet-to-Vet: Anesthesia/Analgesia. Veterinary Information Network. Available at: www.vin.com. Accessed Jun 14, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Lascelles BD, et al. Changes in thermal threshold response in eight cats after administration of buprenorphine, butorphanol and morphine. Vet Rec 2003;153:462465.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Hoskin PJ, Hanks GW. Opioid agonist-antagonist drugs in acute and chronic pain states. Drugs 1991;41:326344.

  • 7

    Cowan A. Update on the general pharmacology of buprenorphine. In:Cowan A, Lewis JW, ed.Buprenorphine: combating drug abuse with a unique opioid. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1995;3147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Dixon MJ, Robertson SA, Taylor PM. A thermal threshold testing device for evaluation of analgesics in cats. Res Vet Sci 2002;72:205210.

  • 9

    Lascelles BD, Robertson SA. Antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone, butorphanol, or the combination in cats. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:190195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Lascelles BD, Robertson SA. Use of thermal threshold response to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of butorphanol in cats. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:10851089.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Gaver RC, Vasiljev M, Wong H, et al. Disposition of parenteral butorphanol in man. Drug Metab Dispos 1980;8:230235.

  • 12

    Carroll GL, Boothe DM, Hartsfield SM, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of butorphanol in llamas after intravenous and intramuscular administration. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:12631267.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Pfeffer M, Smyth RD, Pittman KA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous and intramuscular butorphanol in dogs. J Pharm Sci 1980;69:801803.

  • 14

    Sawyer DC, Rech RH. Analgesia and behavioral effects of butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine in the cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1987;23:438446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Sawyer DC, Rech RH, Durham RA, et al. Dose response to butorphanol administered subcutaneously to increase visceral nociceptive threshold in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:18261830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Kalpravidh M, Lumb WV, Wright M, et al. Analgesic effects of butorphanol in horses: dose-response studies. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:211216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Kalpravidh M, Lumb WV, Wright M, et al. Effects of butorphanol, flunixin, levorphanol, morphine, and xylazine in ponies. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:217223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Muir WW, Robertson JT. Visceral analgesia: effects of xylazine, butorphanol, meperidine, and pentazocine in horses. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:20812084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Waterman AE, Livingston A, Amin A. Analgesic activity and respiratory effects of butorphanol in sheep. Res Vet Sci 1991;51:1923.

  • 20

    Robertson SA, Lascelles BD, Taylor PM, et al. PK-PD modeling of buprenorphine in cats: intravenous and oral transmucosal administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2005;28:453460.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Yassen A, Olofsen E, Dahan A, et al. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine and fentanyl in rats: role of receptor equilibration kinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005;313:11361149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Nolan A, Livingston A, Waterman AE. Investigation of the antinociceptive activity of buprenorphine in sheep. Br J Pharmacol 1987;92:527533.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Kest B, Wilson SG, Mogil JS. Sex differences in supraspinal morphine analgesia are dependent on genotype. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999;289:13701375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Mogil JS. The genetic mediation of individual differences in sensitivity to pain and its inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:77447751.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Mogil JS, Chesler EJ, Wilson SG, et al. Sex differences in thermal nociception and morphine antinociception in rodents depend on genotype. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000;24:375389.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Mogil JS, Ritchie J, Smith SB, et al. Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants affect pain and mu-opioid analgesia in mice and humans. J Med Genet 2005;42:583587.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Mogil JS, Wilson SG, Chesler EJ, et al. The melanocortin-1 receptor gene mediates female-specific mechanisms of analgesia in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:48674872.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Wilson SG, Smith SB, Chesler EJ, et al. The heritability of antinociception: common pharmacogenetic mediation of five neurochemically distinct analgesics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;304:547559.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Barrett AC, Cook CD, Terner JM, et al. Sex and rat strain determine sensitivity to kappa opioid-induced antinociception. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;160:170181.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Barrett AC, Smith ES, Picker MJ. Sex-related differences in mechanical nociception and antinociception produced by muand kappa-opioid receptor agonists in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;452:163173.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Pick CG, Cheng J, Paul D, et al. Genetic influences in opioid analgesic sensitivity in mice. Brain Res 1991;566:295298.

  • 32

    Cicero TJ, Nock B, Meyer ER. Gender-related differences in the antinociceptive properties of morphine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996;279:767773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Craft RM, Bernal SA. Sex differences in opioid antinociception: kappa and ‘mixed action’ agonists. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;63:215228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Negus SS, Mello NK. Opioid antinociception in ovariectomized monkeys: comparison with antinociception in males and effects of estradiol replacement. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999;290:11321140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Cook CD, Barrett AC, Roach EL, et al. Sex-related differences in the antinociceptive effects of opioids: importance of rat genotype, nociceptive stimulus intensity, and efficacy at the mu opioid receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;150:430442.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Terner JM, Barrett AC, Cook CD, et al. Sex differences in (−)pentazocine antinociception: comparison to morphine and spiradoline in four rat strains using a thermal nociceptive assay. Behav Pharmacol 2003;14:7785.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Elmer GI, Pieper JO, Negus SS, et al. Genetic variance in nociception and its relationship to the potency of morphine-induced analgesia in thermal and chemical tests. Pain 1998;75:129140.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Lasagna L, Beecher HK. The optimal dose of morphine. J Am Med Assoc 1954;156:230234.

  • 39

    Terner JM, Lomas LM, Smith ES, et al. Pharmacogenetic analysis of sex differences in opioid antinociception in rats. Pain 2003;106:381391.

  • 40

    Lotsch J, Skarke C, Liefhold J, et al. Genetic predictors of the clinical response to opioid analgesics: clinical utility and future perspectives. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004;43:9831013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Barter LS, Ilkiw JE, Steffey EP, et al. Animal dependence of inhaled anaesthetic requirements in cats. Br J Anaesth 2004;92:275277.

Advertisement

Antinociceptive effects of butorphanol, buprenorphine, or both, administered intramuscularly in cats

Jacob A. JohnsonDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610

Search for other papers by Jacob A. Johnson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Sheilah A. RobertsonDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610

Search for other papers by Sheilah A. Robertson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVMS, PhD
, and
Bruno H. PypendopDepartment of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Search for other papers by Bruno H. Pypendop in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DrMedVet, DrVetSci

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the antinociceptive action of IM-administered butorphanol, buprenorphine, or a combination of both by use of a thermal threshold method in cats.

Animals—2 male and 4 female domestic cats.

Procedures—In a controlled, masked, randomized, crossover study design, thermal thresholds were measured by use of a thermal threshold–testing device developed for cats. Each cat received 4 treatments 1 week apart, consisting of 2 simultaneous IM injections in a random order (butorphanol-saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, buprenorphine-saline solution, butorphanol-buprenorphine, and saline solution-saline solution). The tester was unaware of the treatment given. Thermal thresholds were measured prior to injection, at intervals up to 12 hours, and at 22 hours after injection.

Results—There was no significant change in threshold over time after saline solution administration. All 3 opioid treatment groups had significant increases in thermal threshold, compared with pretreatment values (butorphanol, from 50 minutes to 8 hours; buprenorphine, from 35 minutes to 5 hours; and butorphanol-buprenorphine, from 50 minutes to 8 hours). Thermal thresholds did not differ significantly among opioid treatments at any time points, and thermal thesholds of only 2 opioid treatments (butorphanol at 50 minutes and butorphanol-buprenorphine at 8 hours) were significantly different from that of saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All 3 opioid treatments provided similar antinociception, although there was considerable intercat variability in the response to the different opioid treatments. This emphasizes the importance of assessing each patient individually and applying the treatment that works best for that patient.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the antinociceptive action of IM-administered butorphanol, buprenorphine, or a combination of both by use of a thermal threshold method in cats.

Animals—2 male and 4 female domestic cats.

Procedures—In a controlled, masked, randomized, crossover study design, thermal thresholds were measured by use of a thermal threshold–testing device developed for cats. Each cat received 4 treatments 1 week apart, consisting of 2 simultaneous IM injections in a random order (butorphanol-saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, buprenorphine-saline solution, butorphanol-buprenorphine, and saline solution-saline solution). The tester was unaware of the treatment given. Thermal thresholds were measured prior to injection, at intervals up to 12 hours, and at 22 hours after injection.

Results—There was no significant change in threshold over time after saline solution administration. All 3 opioid treatment groups had significant increases in thermal threshold, compared with pretreatment values (butorphanol, from 50 minutes to 8 hours; buprenorphine, from 35 minutes to 5 hours; and butorphanol-buprenorphine, from 50 minutes to 8 hours). Thermal thresholds did not differ significantly among opioid treatments at any time points, and thermal thesholds of only 2 opioid treatments (butorphanol at 50 minutes and butorphanol-buprenorphine at 8 hours) were significantly different from that of saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All 3 opioid treatments provided similar antinociception, although there was considerable intercat variability in the response to the different opioid treatments. This emphasizes the importance of assessing each patient individually and applying the treatment that works best for that patient.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by a grant from the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, and by the University of Florida Foundation.

The authors thank Dr. J. Hauptman for statistical analysis and Kristine Siao for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Johnson.