Effects of intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide on plasma micromineral, magnesium, and cytokine concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in lactating goats

Jiufeng Wang College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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 DVM, PhD
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Lianguo Jiao College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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Jinlei Ma College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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Chunxia Wu College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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Kai Wang College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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Ming Wang College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

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Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered IV on plasma microminerals, magnesium, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in lactating goats.

Animals—6 lactating goats.

Procedures—Goats were allotted to 3 LPS-treatment groups: control (0 μg/kg), low LPS (10 μg/kg), and high LPS (50 μg/kg). Rectal temperatures and behaviors of goats were recorded immediately before a 10-minute IV infusion of LPS and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Blood samples were obtained before IV infusion and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Plasma zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were measured by use of an ELISA; and serum cortisol concentrations were determined by use of a radioimmunoassay.

Results—A monophasic fever developed in low-LPS and high-LPS groups. In the low-LPS and high-LPS group, plasma zinc concentrations decreased at 6 hours after infusion; compared with control groups. Plasma iron concentrations were lower at 24 hours after infusion in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were higher in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group at 1, 2, and 4 hours after infusion. In low-LPS and high-LPS groups, serum cortisol concentrations increased from 0.5 hours onward and peaked at 1 (high-LPS group) and 2 (low-LPS group) hours after infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following IV infusion of LPS, the immune system is activated, which might affect micromineral homeostatic regulation and, subsequently, the metabolic health of lactating goats.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered IV on plasma microminerals, magnesium, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in lactating goats.

Animals—6 lactating goats.

Procedures—Goats were allotted to 3 LPS-treatment groups: control (0 μg/kg), low LPS (10 μg/kg), and high LPS (50 μg/kg). Rectal temperatures and behaviors of goats were recorded immediately before a 10-minute IV infusion of LPS and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Blood samples were obtained before IV infusion and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Plasma zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were measured by use of an ELISA; and serum cortisol concentrations were determined by use of a radioimmunoassay.

Results—A monophasic fever developed in low-LPS and high-LPS groups. In the low-LPS and high-LPS group, plasma zinc concentrations decreased at 6 hours after infusion; compared with control groups. Plasma iron concentrations were lower at 24 hours after infusion in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were higher in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group at 1, 2, and 4 hours after infusion. In low-LPS and high-LPS groups, serum cortisol concentrations increased from 0.5 hours onward and peaked at 1 (high-LPS group) and 2 (low-LPS group) hours after infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following IV infusion of LPS, the immune system is activated, which might affect micromineral homeostatic regulation and, subsequently, the metabolic health of lactating goats.

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