• 1

    Blackford WL, Blackford TJ. Suture materials and patterns. In:Auer JA, Stick JA, ed.Equine surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999;91103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Freudenberg S, Rewerk S, Kaess M, et al. Biodegradation of absorbable sutures in body fluids and pH buffers. Eur Surg Res 2004;36:376385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Tolga Muftuoglu MA, Ozkan E, Saglam A. Effect of human pancreatic juice and bile on the tensile strength of suture materials. Am J Surg 2004;188:200203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Field JR, Stanley RM. Suture characteristics following incubation in synovial fluid or phosphate buffered saline. Injury 2004;35:243248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Ooi CP, Cameron RE. The hydrolytic degradation of Polydioxanone (PDS II) sutures. Part 1: morphological aspects. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2002;63:280290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Ooi CP, Cameron RE. The hydrolytic degradation of Polydioxanone (PDS II) sutures. Part II: micromechanisms of deformation. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2002;63:291298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Sebeseri O, Keller U, Spreng P, et al. The physical properties of polyglycolic acid sutures (Dexon) in sterile and infected urine. Invest Urol 1975;12:490493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    El-Mahrouky A, McElhaney J, Bartone FF, et al. In vitro comparison of the properties of polydioxanone, polyglycolic acid and catgut sutures in sterile and infected urine. J Urol 1987;138:913915.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hering FL, Rosenberg D, Chade J. Effects of pH and the urine infected by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis on chromic catgut, polyglycolic acid and polyglactin 910: study in vitro. Urol Int 1989;44:231234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Gorham SD, Monsour MJ, Scott R. The in vitro assessment of a collagen/vicryl (polyglactin) composite film together with candidate suture materials for use in urinary tract surgery. Urol Res 1987;15:5359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Gemmell CG, Gorham SD, Monsour MJ, et al. The in vitro assessment of a collagen/vicryl (polyglactin) composite film together with candidate suture materials for potential use in urinary tract surgery. Urol Res 1988;16:381384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Greenberg CB, Davidson EB, Bellmer DD, et al. Evaluation of the tensile strengths of four monofilament absorbable suture materials after immersion in canine urine with or without bacteria. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:847853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Schiller TD, Stone EA, Gupta BS. In vitro loss of tensile strength and elasticity of five absorbable suture materials in sterile and infected canine urine. Vet Surg 1993;22:208212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Couture Y, Mulon P-Y. Procedures and surgeries of the teat. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2005;21:173204.

  • 15

    Arighi M, Ducharme NG, Horney FD, et al. Invasive teat surgery in dairy cattle. II. Long-term follow-up and complications. Can Vet J 1987;28:763767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Makady FM, Whitmore HL, Nelson DR, et al. Effect of tissue adhesives and suture patterns on experimentally induced teat lacerations in lactating dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:19321934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Tyler JW, Cullor JS. Mammary gland health and disorders. In:Smith BP, ed.Large animal internal medicine. 3rd ed. St Louis: CV Mosby Co, 2002;10191038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Guelph University Food Science Web site. Pasteurisation, thermal lethality determination. Available at: www.foodsci. uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/pasteurization.html. Accessed Oct 20, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Motulsky H. Two-way ANOVA. In:Graphpad PRISM 4 statistic guide. Statistical analyses for laboratory and clinical researchers. San Diego: GraphPad Software Inc, 2003;7692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Campbell EJ, Bailey JV. Mechanical properties of suture materials in vitro and after in vivo implantation in horses. Vet Surg 1992;21:355361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Fierheller EE, Wilson DG. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of the breaking strength and stiffness of polydioxanone (size 2, 7) and polyglactin 910 (size 3, 6) in the equine linea alba. Vet Surg 2005;34:1823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Trostle SS, Wilson DG, Stone WC, et al. A study of the biomechanical properties of the adult equine linea alba: relationship of tissue bite size and suture material to breaking strength. Vet Surg 1994;23:435441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Breaking strength and elasticity of synthetic absorbable suture materials incubated in phosphate-buffered saline solution, milk, and milk contaminated with Streptococcus agalactiae

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro effects of PBSS, milk, and bacteria-contaminated milk (BCM; contaminated by Streptococcus agalactiae) on properties of 3 synthetic absorbable suture materials.

Sample Population—3 types of synthetic absorbable suture materials (poliglecaprone 25, polyglycolic acid, and polydioxanone).

Procedures—Suture materials were tested to determine breaking strength and elasticity before (day 0) and after incubation in 3 media (PBSS, milk, and BCM) for 7, 14, and 21 days. A loop of suture material was elongated at a rate of 60 mm/min until it reached the breaking point. Tensile properties were statistically analyzed among media and incubation times.

Results—Incubation in milk and BCM significantly decreased breaking strength and elasticity of poliglecaprone 25, compared with results for incubation in PBSS. Incubation in BCM significantly decreased tensile properties of polyglycolic acid suture, compared with results for incubation in PBSS and milk. After incubation for 21 days, tensile properties of polydioxanone did not differ significantly among the media but were significantly decreased from values on day 0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of this study, poliglecaprone 25 is an inappropriate suture material for use in teat surgery. Polyglycolic acid suture should be avoided in teats of cattle with mastitis. Of the suture materials tested, polydioxanone was best suited for use in teat surgery, as determined on the basis of material testing after incubation in milk, even when the milk was contaminated with bacteria.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Nichols' and Anderson's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

The authors thank Jed Johnson and Gabe Coleman for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Nichols.