• 1

    Buss DD, Rawlings CA, Bisgard GE. The normal electrocardiogram of the domestic pony. J Electrocardiol 1975;8:167172.

  • 2

    Patteson MW. Diagnostic aids in equine cardiology. In: Patteson MW, ed. Equine cardiology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 1996;70115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Long KJ. Two dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Equine Vet Educ 1992;4:303310.

  • 4

    Long KJ, Bonagura JD, Darke PGG. Standardised imaging technique for guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography in the horse. Equine Vet J 1992;24:226235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Devereux RB, Reicheck N. Echocardiographic determination of left ventricular mass in man. Anatomic validation of the method. Circulation 1977;55:613618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Young LE, Rogers K, Wood JL. Left ventricular size and systolic function in Thoroughbred racehorses and their relationships to race performance. J Appl Physiol 2005;1999:12781285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Lord PF, Croft MA. Accuracy of formulae for calculating left ventricular volumes of the equine heart. Equine Vet J Suppl 1990;9:5356.

  • 8

    Kriz NG, Hodgson DR, Reuben JR. Changes in cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function during deconditioning in horses. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:15531560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Patteson MW, Cripps PJ. A survey of cardiac auscultatory findings in horses. Equine Vet J 1993;25:409415.

  • 10

    Reef VB. Heart murmurs in horses: determining their significance with echocardiography. Equine Vet J Suppl 1995;19:7180.

  • 11

    Detweiler DK. The mammalian electrocardiogram: comparative features. In: MacFarlane PW, Veitch Lawrie TD, eds.Comprehensive electrocardiography: theory and practice in health and disease. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989;13311377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Mahony C, Rantanen NW, DeMichael JA, et al. Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in the thoroughbred: high prevalence in racehorses and a characteristic abnormality in bleeders. Equine Vet J 1992;24:129133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Blissitt KJ, Bonagura JD. Colour flow Doppler echocardiography in normal horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 1995;19:4755.

  • 14

    Marr CM, Reef VB. Physiological valvular regurgitation in clinically normal young racehorses: prevalence and two-dimensional colour flow Doppler echocardiographic characteristics. Equine Vet J Suppl 1995;19:5662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Fregin GF. The equine electrocardiogram with standardized body and limb positions. Cornell Vet 1982;72:304324.

  • 16

    Marroum PJ, Webb AI, Aeschbacher G, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acepromazine in horses. Am J Vet Res 1994;55:14281433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Sarazan RD, Starke WA, Krause GF, et al. Cardiovascular effects of detomidine, a new alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, in the conscious pony. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1989;12:378388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Yamashita K, Tsubakishita S, Futaoka S, et al. Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. J Vet Med Sci 2000;62:10251032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bristol DG, Smith J, Silberman MS. Acepromazine and etorphine for prolonged anesthesia of a zebra. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;185:14391440.

  • 20

    Clarke KW, Paton BS. Combined use of detomidine with opiates in the horse. Equine Vet J 1988;20:331334.

  • 21

    Patteson MW, Gibbs C, Wotton PR, et al. Effects of sedation with detomidine hydrochloride on echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 1995;19:3337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Young LE, Wood JL. Effect of age and training on murmurs of atrioventricular valvular regurgitation in young Thoroughbreds. Equine Vet J 2000;32:195199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Slater JD, Herrtage ME. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions in normal ponies and horses. Equine Vet J 1995;18:2832.

Advertisement

Cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 5 White Oak Conservation Center, 581705 White Oak Rd, Yulee, FL 32097.
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 7 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 8 White Oak Conservation Center, 581705 White Oak Rd, Yulee, FL 32097.

Abstract

Objective—To determine ECG and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

Animals—20 healthy zebras.

Procedures—Auscultation, base-apex ECG, and echocardiography were performed on anesthetized zebras.

Results—Low-grade systolic murmurs were detected in the left basilar region in 4 of 20 zebras. Evaluation of ECGs from 19 zebras revealed sinus rhythm with a predominantly negative QRS complex and a mean ± SD heart rate of 67 ± 10 beats/min. Echocardiograms of sufficient image quality were obtained for 16 zebras. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular chamber in diastole and systole, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular mass were significantly and moderately correlated with estimated body weight (r values ranged from 0.650 to 0.884). Detectable swirling of blood in the right and sometimes the left ventricles was detected in 9 of 16 zebras, whereas physiologic regurgitation of blood was detected for the aortic valve in 3 zebras, pulmonary valve in 2 zebras, mitral valve in 2 zebras, and tricuspid valve in 1 zebra.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Adin's present address is Veterinary Specialists of Rochester, 825 White Spruce Blvd, Rochester, NY 14623.

Dr. Ojeda's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Supported by Sound Technologies Inc.

This study was performed at the White Oak Conservation Center.

Address correspondence to Dr. Adin.