• 1

    McIlwraith CW. Diseases of joint, tendons, ligaments, and related structures. In:Stashak TS, ed.Adams' lameness in horses. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002;459588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Schneider RK. Orthopedic infections. In:Auer JA, Stick JA, ed.Equine surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999;727736.

  • 3

    McIlwraith CW. Treatment of infectious arthritis. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1983;5:363379.

  • 4

    Schneider RK, Bramlage LR & Moore RM, et al. A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis. Equine Vet J 1992;24:436442.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Bertone AL. Infectious arthritis. In:McIlwraith CW, Trotter GW, ed.Joint disease in the horse. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;397409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Meijer MC, Van Weeren PR, Rijkenhuizen ABM. Clinical experiences of treating septic arthritis in the equine by repeated joint lavage: a series of 39 cases. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2000;47:351365.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Spiers S, May SA & Harrison LJ, et al. Proteolytic enzymes in equine joints with infectious arthritis. Equine Vet J 1994;26:4850.

  • 8

    Orsini JA. Strategies for treatment of bone and joint infections in large animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;185:11901193.

  • 9

    Lescun TB, Adams SB & Wu CC, et al. Continuous infusion of gentamicin into the tarsocrural joint of horses. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:407412.

  • 10

    Schneider RK, Bramlage LR & Mecklenburg LM, et al. Open drainage, intra-articular and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis in horses. Equine Vet J 1992;24:443449.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    LaPointe JM, Laverty S, LaVoie JP. Septic arthritis in 15 Standardbred racehorses after intra-articular injection. Equine Vet J 1992;24:430434.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Wright IM, Smith MRW & Humphrey DJ, et al. Endoscopic surgery in the treatment of contaminated and infected synovial cavities. Equine Vet J 2003;35:613619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Steel CM, Hunt AR & Adams PLE, et al. Factors associated with prognosis for survival and athletic use in foals with septic arthritis: 93 cases (1987–1994). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:973977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Summerhays GES. Treatment of traumatically induced synovial sepsis in horses with gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges. Vet Rec 2000;147:184188.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Bertone AL, Jones RL, McIlwraith CW. Serum and synovial fluid steady-state concentrations of trimethoprim and sufadiazine in horses with experimentally induced infectious arthritis. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:16811687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Ruszczak Z, Friess W. Collagen as a carrier for on-site delivery of antibacterial drugs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2003;55:16791698.

  • 17

    Friess W. Collagen—biomaterial for drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1998;45:113136.

  • 18

    Hirsbrunner G, Steiner A. Treatment of infectious arthritis of the radiocarpal joint of cattle with gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges. Vet Rec 1998;142:399402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Stover SM, Pool RR. Effect of intra-articular gentamicin sulfate on normal equine synovial membrane. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:24852491.

  • 20

    Lescun TB, Adams SB & Wu CC, et al. Effects of continuous intra-articular infusion of gentamicin on synovial membrane and articular cartilage in the tarsocrural joint of horses. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:683687.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Moore RD, Lietman PS, Smith CR. Clinical response to aminoglycoside therapy: importance of the ratio of peak concentration to minimal inhibitory concentration. J Infect Dis 1987;155:9399.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Jackson GG, Lolans VT, Daikos GL. The inductive role of ionic binding in the bactericidal and postexposure effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics with implications for dosing. J Infect Dis 1990;162:408413.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Godber LM, Walker RD & Stein GE, et al. Pharmacokinetics, nephrotoxicosis, and in vitro antibacterial activity associated with single versus multiple (three times) daily gentamicin treatments in horses. Am J Vet Res 1995;56:613618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Lloyd KCK, Stover SM & Pascoe JR, et al. Synovial fluid pH, cytologic characteristics, and gentamicin concentration after intraarticular administration of the drug in an experimental model of infectious arthritis in horses. Am J Vet Res 1990;51:13631369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Lloyd KC, Stover SM & Pascoe JR, et al. Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of gentamicin in horses after intra-articular administration of buffered and unbuffered gentamicin. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:644649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Sojka JE, Brown SA. Pharmacokinetic adjustment of gentamicin dosing in horses with sepsis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;189:784789.

  • 27

    Doherty TJ, Novotny MJ & Desjardins MR, et al. Gentamicin concentrations in body fluids of adult horses following high-dose administration, in Proceedings. 40th Annu Meet Am Assoc Equine Pract 1994;113114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Whitehair KJ, Blevins WE & Fessler JF, et al. Regional perfusion of the equine carpus for antibiotic delivery. Vet Surg 1992;21:279285.

  • 29

    Farnsworth KD, White NA, Robertson J. The effect of implanting gentamicin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in the tarsocrural joint of the horse. Vet Surg 2001;30:126131.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Zulauf M, Jordan P, Steiner A. Fenestration of the abaxial hoof wall and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for the treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle. Vet Rec 2001;149:516518.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Jolley ME, Stroupe SD & Wang CHJ, et al. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay I. Monitoring aminoglycoside antibiotics in serum and plasma. Clin Chem 1981;27:11901197.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    McIlwraith CW. General pathobiology of the joint and response to injury. In:McIlwraith CW, Trotter GW, ed.Joint disease in the horse. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;4070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Oesser S, Seifert J. Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen. Cell Tissue Res 2003;311:393399.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    McCarthy HE, Singer ER, Davies Morel CG. The effect of sodium heparin on equine articular cartilage. Vet J 2001;162:7379.

Advertisement

Gentamicin concentrations in synovial fluid obtained from the tarsocrural joints of horses after implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Objective—To determine synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations and evaluate adverse effects on the synovial membrane and articular cartilage of tarsocrural joints after implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge.

Animals—6 healthy adult mares.

Procedures—A purified bovine type I collagen sponge impregnated with 130 mg of gentamicin was implanted in the plantarolateral pouch of 1 tarsocrural joint of each horse, with the contralateral joint used as a sham-operated control joint. Gentamicin concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were determined for 120 hours after implantation by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Synovial membrane and cartilage specimens were collected 120 hours after implantation and evaluated histologically.

Results—Median peak synovial fluid gentamicin concentration of 168.9 μg/mL (range, 115.6 to 332 μg/mL) was achieved 3 hours after implantation. Synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations were < 4 μg/mL by 48 hours. Major histologic differences were not observed in the synovial membrane between control joints and joints implanted with gentamicin-impregnated sponges. Safranin-O fast green stain was not reduced in cartilage specimens obtained from treated joints, compared with those from control joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge in the tarsocrural joint of horses resulted in rapid release of gentamicin, with peak concentrations > 20 times the minimum inhibitory concentration reported for common pathogens that infect horses. A rapid decrease in synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations was detected. The purified bovine type I collagen sponges did not elicit substantial inflammation in the synovial membrane or cause mechanical trauma to the articular cartilage.

Abstract

Objective—To determine synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations and evaluate adverse effects on the synovial membrane and articular cartilage of tarsocrural joints after implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge.

Animals—6 healthy adult mares.

Procedures—A purified bovine type I collagen sponge impregnated with 130 mg of gentamicin was implanted in the plantarolateral pouch of 1 tarsocrural joint of each horse, with the contralateral joint used as a sham-operated control joint. Gentamicin concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were determined for 120 hours after implantation by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Synovial membrane and cartilage specimens were collected 120 hours after implantation and evaluated histologically.

Results—Median peak synovial fluid gentamicin concentration of 168.9 μg/mL (range, 115.6 to 332 μg/mL) was achieved 3 hours after implantation. Synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations were < 4 μg/mL by 48 hours. Major histologic differences were not observed in the synovial membrane between control joints and joints implanted with gentamicin-impregnated sponges. Safranin-O fast green stain was not reduced in cartilage specimens obtained from treated joints, compared with those from control joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge in the tarsocrural joint of horses resulted in rapid release of gentamicin, with peak concentrations > 20 times the minimum inhibitory concentration reported for common pathogens that infect horses. A rapid decrease in synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations was detected. The purified bovine type I collagen sponges did not elicit substantial inflammation in the synovial membrane or cause mechanical trauma to the articular cartilage.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Adams.