• 1

    Pedersen EN, Simonsen EB, Alkjaer T, et al.Walking pattern in adults with congenital hip dysplasia: 14 women examined by inverse dynamics. Acta Orthop Scand 2004; 75: 29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Endo H, Mitani S, Senda M, et al.Three-dimensional gait analysis of adults with hip dysplasia after rotational acetabular osteotomy. J Orthop Sci 2003; 8: 762771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Powers MY, Biery DN, Lawler DE, et al.Use of the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an early marker for future development of osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225: 233237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Smith GK. Advances in diagnosing canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210: 14511457.

  • 5

    Novacheck TF. Developmental dysplasia of the hip. Pediatr Clin North Am 1996; 43: 829848.

  • 6

    Rumph PF, Kincaid SA, Baird DK, et al.Vertical ground reaction force distribution during experimentally induced acute synovitis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 365369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Leighton EA. Genetics of canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210: 14741479.

  • 8

    Smith GK, Popovitch CA, Gregor TP, et al.Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 206: 642647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Todhunter RJ, Casella G, Bliss SP, et al.Power of a Labrador Retriever-Greyhound pedigree for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 2003; 64: 418424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Todhunter RJ, Bliss SP, Casella G, et al.Genetic structure of susceptibility traits for hip dysplasia and microsatellite informativeness of an outcrossed canine pedigree. J Hered 2003; 94: 3948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Lust G, Rendano VT, Summers BA. Canine hip dysplasia: concepts and diagnosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 187: 638640.

  • 12

    Riser WH. The dog as a model for the study of hip dysplasia. Growth, form, and development of the normal and dysplastic hip joint. Vet Pathol 1975; 12: 234334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Shefelbine SJ, Carter DR. Mechanobiological predictions of growth front morphology in developmental hip dysplasia. J Orthop Res 2004; 22: 346352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Fries CL, Remedios AM. The pathogenesis and diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia: a review. Can Vet J 1995; 36: 494502.

  • 15

    Budsberg SC, Jevens DJ, Brown J, et al.Evaluation of limb symmetry indices, using ground reaction forces in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 15691574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Budsberg SC, Johnston SA, Schwarz PD, et al.Efficacy of etodolac for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joints in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 214: 206210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    DeCamp CE, Soutas-Little RW, Hauptman J, et al.Kinematic gait analysis of the trot in healthy Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 627634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    DeCamp CE. Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis and the assessment of lameness in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1997; 27: 825840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Jevens DJ, Hauptman JG, DeCamp CE, et al.Contributions to variance in force-plate analysis of gait in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 612615.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Bennett RL, DeCamp CE, Flo GL, et al.Kinematic gait analysis in dogs with hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 966971.

  • 21

    Budsberg SC, Chambers JN, Lue SL, et al.Prospective evaluation of ground reaction forces in dogs undergoing unilateral total hip replacement. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 17811785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    McLaughlin RM Jr, Miller CW, Taves CL, et al.Force plate analysis of triple pelvic osteotomy for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Surg 1991; 20: 291297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Poy NS, DeCamp CE, Bennett RL, et al.Additional kinematic variables to describe differences in the trot between clinically normal dogs and dogs with hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61: 974978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Patricelli AJ, Dueland RT, Adams WM, et al.Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis in dysplastic puppies at 15 and 20 weeks of age. Vet Surg 2002; 31: 435444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Romano CL, Frigo C, Randelli G, et al.Analysis of the gait of adults who had residua of congenital dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 14681479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    O'Connor BL, Woodbury P. The primary articular nerves to the dog knee. J Anat 1982; 134: 563572.

  • 27

    Ferber R, Osternig LR, Woollacott MH, et al.Gait perturbation response in chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and repair. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003; 18: 132141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Ferber R, Osternig LR, Woollacott MH, et al.Bilateral accommodations to anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and surgery. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2004; 19: 136144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    McLaughlin RM Jr, Roush JK. Effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in clinically normal Greyhounds at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 16661671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Soutas-Little RW, et al.Force plate analyses before and after stabilization of canine stifles for cruciate injury. Am J Vet Res 1988; 49: 15221524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Soutas-Little RW. Force plate analysis of the walking gait in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1987; 48: 915918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Brown J, et al.Vertical loading rates in clinically normal dogs at a trot. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 12751280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Rumph PF, Lander JE, Kincaid SA, et al.Ground reaction force profiles from force platform gait analyses of clinically normal mesomorphic dogs at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 756761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Smith GK, Biery DN, Gregor TP. New concepts of coxofemoral joint stability and the development of a clinical stress-radiographic method for quantitating hip joint laxity in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196: 5970.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Smith GK, Gregor TP, Rhodes WH, et al.Coxofemoral joint laxity from distraction radiography and its contemporaneous and prospective correlation with laxity, subjective score, and evidence of degenerative joint disease from conventional hip-extended radiography in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 10211042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Markel MD. The power of a statistical test. What does insignificance mean? Vet Surg 1991; 20: 209214.

  • 37

    Herzog W, Nigg BM, Read LJ, et al.Asymmetries in ground reaction force patterns in normal human gait. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21: 110114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Stolze H, Kuhtz-Buschbeck JP, Mondwurf C, et al.Retest reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters in children and adults. Gait Posture 1998; 7: 125130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Martin PE, Marsh AP. Step length and frequency effects on ground reaction forces during walking. J Biomech 1992; 25: 12371239.

  • 40

    Yaguramaki N, Kimura T. Acquirement of stability and mobility in infant gait. Gait Posture 2002; 16: 6977.

  • 41

    White R, Agouris I, Selbie RD, et al.The variability of force platform data in normal and cerebral palsy gait. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 1999; 14: 185192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Farese JP, Lust G, Williams AJ, et al.Comparison of measurements of dorsolateral subluxation of the femoral head and maximal passive laxity for evaluation of the coxofemoral joint in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60: 15711576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of gait kinetics in puppies with coxofemoral joint laxity

Mandi J. Lopez DVM, PhD1, Margaret M. Quinn BS2, and Mark D. Markel DVM, PhD3
View More View Less
  • 1 Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
  • | 2 Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706
  • | 3 Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

Abstract

Objective—To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies.

Animals—Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs.

Procedure—Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis.

Results—Mean ± SEM DI was 0.67 ± 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies.

Animals—Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs.

Procedure—Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis.

Results—Mean ± SEM DI was 0.67 ± 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Lopez.

Supported in part by the National Institutes of Health-NIAMS, Arthritis Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Companion Animal Fund.

The authors thank John Bogdanske, Jennifer Devitt, and Susan Linden for technical assistance.