• 1.

    Uhlar CM, Whitehead AS. Serum amyloid A, the major vertebrate acute-phase reactant. Eur J Biochem 1999;265:501523.

  • 2.

    Hultén C, Demmers S. Serum amyloid A (SAA) as an aid in the management of infectious disease in the foal: comparison with total leukocyte count, neutrofil count and fibrinogen. Equine Vet J 2002;34:693698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Jacobsen S, Jensen JC & Frei S, et al. Using serum amyloid A and other acute phase reactants to monitor the inflammatory response after castration in horses—a field study. Equine Vet J 2005;37:552556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Pepys MB, Baltz ML, Tennent GA. Serum amyloid A (SAA) in horses: objective measurement of the acute phase response. Equine Vet J 1989;21:106109.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Mozes G, Friedman N, Shainkin-Kestenbaum R. Serum amyloid A: an extremely sensitive marker for intensity of tissue damage in trauma patients and indicator of acute phase response in various diseases. J Trauma 1989;29:7174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Hultén C, Grönlund U & Hirvonen J, et al. Dynamics in serum of the inflammatory markers serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen and α2-globulins during induced noninfectious arthritis in the horse. Equine Vet J 2002;34:699704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Jacobsen S, Niewold TA & Halling-Thomsen M, et al. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid in horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced arthritis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2006;110:325330.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    O'Hara R, Murphy EP & Whitehead AS, et al. Acute-phase serum amyloid A production by rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Arthritis Res 2000;2:142144.

  • 9.

    Vallon R, Freuler F & Desta-Tsedu N, et al. Serum amyloid A (apoSAA) expression is up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis and induces transcription of matrix metalloproteinases. J Immunol 2001;166:28012807.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bresnihan B, Gogarty M & FitzGerald O, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I infiltration in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue: a control mechanism of cytokine production? Arthritis Res Ther 2004;6:R563R566.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Chambers RE, MacFarlane DG & Whicher JT, et al. Serum amyloid-A protein concentration in rheumatoid arthritis and its role in monitoring disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 1983;42:665667.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kumon Y, Suehiro T & Hashimoto K, et al. Local expression of acute phase serum amyloid A mRNA in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and cells. J Rheumatol 1999;26:785790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kumon Y, Suehiro T & Nishiya K, et al. Ferritin correlates with C-reactive protein and acute phase serum amyloid A in synovial fluid, but not in serum. Amyloid 1999;6:130135.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sukenik S, Henkin J & Zimlichman S, et al. Serum and synovial fluid levels of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein in inflammatory and noninflammatory arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988;15:942945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Cunnane G, Grehan S & Geoghegan S, et al. Serum amyloid A in the assessment of early inflammatory arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000;27:5863.

  • 16.

    Madison JB, Sommer M, Spencer PA. Relations among synovial membrane histopathologic findings, synovial fluid cytologic findings, and bacterial culture results in horses with suspected infectious arthritis: 64 cases (1979–1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:16551661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    von Essen R, Hölttä A. Improved method of isolating bacteria from joint fluids by the use of blood culture bottles. Ann Rheum Dis 1986;45:454457.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Jacobsen S, Kjelgaard-Hansen M & Hagbard Petersen HH, et al. Evaluation of a commercially available human serum amyloid A (SAA) turbidometric immunoassay for determination of equine SAA concentrations. Vet J 2006;172:315319.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Jacobsen S, Niewold TA & Kornalijnslijper E, et al. Kinetics of local and systemic isoforms of serum amyloid A in bovine mastitic milk. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2005;104:2131.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Brama PA, van den Boom R & DeGroott J, et al. Collagenase-1 (MMP-1) activity in equine synovial fluid: influence of age, joint pathology, exercise and repeated arthrocentesis. Equine Vet J 2004;36:3440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    van den Boom R, van de Lest CH & Bull S, et al. Influence of repeated arthrocentesis and exercise on synovial fluid concentrations of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and glycosaminoglycans in healthy equine joints. Equine Vet J 2005;37:250256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    van den Boom R, Brama PA & Kiers GH, et al. The influence of repeated arthrocentesis and exercise on matrix metalloproteinase and tumour necrosis factor alpha activities in normal equine joints. Equine Vet J 2004;36:155159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Yamada T. Serum amyloid A (SAA): a concise review of biology, assay methods and clinical usefulness. Clin Chem Lab Med 1999;37:381388.

  • 24.

    Sipe JD. Acute-phase proteins in osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1995;25:7586.

Advertisement

Concentrations of serum amyloid A in serum and synovial fluid from healthy horses and horses with joint disease

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Large Animal Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlaegevej 48, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • | 2 Department of Large Animal Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlaegevej 48, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlaegevej 48, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Objective—To determine serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in serum and synovial fluid from healthy horses and horses with joint disease and assess the effect of repeated arthrocentesis on SAA concentrations in synovial fluid.

Animals—10 healthy horses and 21 horses with various types of joint disease.

Procedures—Serum and synovial fluid samples were obtained from each horse. In 5 of the 10 healthy horses, arthrocentesis was repeated 9 times. Concentrations of SAA were determined via immunoturbidometry.

Results—Serum and synovial fluid SAA concentrations were less than the assay detection limit in healthy horses and did not change in response to repeated arthrocentesis. Synovial fluid SAA concentrations were significantly higher in horses with suspected bacterial joint contamination or infectious arthritis, or tenovaginitis than in healthy controls, and serum concentrations were significantly higher in horses with infectious conditions than in the other groups. Neither serum nor synovial fluid SAA concentrations in horses with low-inflammation joint conditions differed significantly from those in healthy controls. Concentrations of SAA and total protein in synovial fluid were significantly correlated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synovial fluid SAA concentration was a good marker of infectious arthritis and tenovaginitis and appeared to reflect changes in inflammatory activity. The advantages of use of SAA as a marker include the ease and speed of measurement and the fact that concentrations in synovial fluid were not influenced by repeated arthrocentesis in healthy horses. Further study of the SAA response in osteoarthritic joints to assess its usefulness in diagnosis and monitoring of osteoarthritis is warranted.

Abstract

Objective—To determine serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in serum and synovial fluid from healthy horses and horses with joint disease and assess the effect of repeated arthrocentesis on SAA concentrations in synovial fluid.

Animals—10 healthy horses and 21 horses with various types of joint disease.

Procedures—Serum and synovial fluid samples were obtained from each horse. In 5 of the 10 healthy horses, arthrocentesis was repeated 9 times. Concentrations of SAA were determined via immunoturbidometry.

Results—Serum and synovial fluid SAA concentrations were less than the assay detection limit in healthy horses and did not change in response to repeated arthrocentesis. Synovial fluid SAA concentrations were significantly higher in horses with suspected bacterial joint contamination or infectious arthritis, or tenovaginitis than in healthy controls, and serum concentrations were significantly higher in horses with infectious conditions than in the other groups. Neither serum nor synovial fluid SAA concentrations in horses with low-inflammation joint conditions differed significantly from those in healthy controls. Concentrations of SAA and total protein in synovial fluid were significantly correlated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synovial fluid SAA concentration was a good marker of infectious arthritis and tenovaginitis and appeared to reflect changes in inflammatory activity. The advantages of use of SAA as a marker include the ease and speed of measurement and the fact that concentrations in synovial fluid were not influenced by repeated arthrocentesis in healthy horses. Further study of the SAA response in osteoarthritic joints to assess its usefulness in diagnosis and monitoring of osteoarthritis is warranted.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Danish Agricultural and Veterinary Research Council and the Jubilee Fund of the Danish Livestock Insurance Company.

The authors thank Drs. Nicolai Jarløv and Nicolai Jansson for assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Jacobsen.