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M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic reference values for male New Zealand white rabbits

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  • 1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
  • | 5 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

Objective—To determine M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic reference values in healthy New Zealand white rabbits.

Animals—52 healthy male rabbits.

Procedures—The rabbits were anesthetized and M-mode measurements of the left ventricle, left atrium, and aorta and Doppler measurements of pulmonary and aortic outflow and mitral inflow were recorded.

Results—Mean ± SD heart rate during echocardiographic examination was 155 ± 29 beats/min. Mean ± SD measurements in diastole and systole for the interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular internal diameter, and left ventricular free wall thickness were 2.03 ± 0.37 mm and 3.05 ± 0.45 mm; 14.37 ± 1.49 mm and 10.25 ± 1.22mm; and 2.16 ± 0.25 and 3.48 ± 0.55 mm, respectively. Mean ± SD left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio was 1.17 ± 0.14, and mean ± SD mitral valve E-point–to–septal separation interval was 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. Mean ± SD for fractional shortening and ejection fraction were 30.13 ± 2.98% and 61.29 ± 4.66%, respectively. Mean ± SD maximal aortic and pulmonary artery outflow velocities were 0.85 ± 0.11 m/s and 0.59 ± 0.10 m/s, respectively, and the peak E-to-peak A wave velocity ratio of the mitral valve was 2.19 ± 0.46.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide echocardiographic reference values for young adult male New Zealand white rabbits anesthetized with ketamine and medetomidine. Values obtained from unanesthetized rabbits, rabbits sedated with other agents, or rabbits of different size may differ from those reported here.

Abstract

Objective—To determine M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic reference values in healthy New Zealand white rabbits.

Animals—52 healthy male rabbits.

Procedures—The rabbits were anesthetized and M-mode measurements of the left ventricle, left atrium, and aorta and Doppler measurements of pulmonary and aortic outflow and mitral inflow were recorded.

Results—Mean ± SD heart rate during echocardiographic examination was 155 ± 29 beats/min. Mean ± SD measurements in diastole and systole for the interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular internal diameter, and left ventricular free wall thickness were 2.03 ± 0.37 mm and 3.05 ± 0.45 mm; 14.37 ± 1.49 mm and 10.25 ± 1.22mm; and 2.16 ± 0.25 and 3.48 ± 0.55 mm, respectively. Mean ± SD left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio was 1.17 ± 0.14, and mean ± SD mitral valve E-point–to–septal separation interval was 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. Mean ± SD for fractional shortening and ejection fraction were 30.13 ± 2.98% and 61.29 ± 4.66%, respectively. Mean ± SD maximal aortic and pulmonary artery outflow velocities were 0.85 ± 0.11 m/s and 0.59 ± 0.10 m/s, respectively, and the peak E-to-peak A wave velocity ratio of the mitral valve was 2.19 ± 0.46.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide echocardiographic reference values for young adult male New Zealand white rabbits anesthetized with ketamine and medetomidine. Values obtained from unanesthetized rabbits, rabbits sedated with other agents, or rabbits of different size may differ from those reported here.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (nr. POCI/SAU-FCT/60803/2004) through the Cardiovascular R&D Unit (FCT nr. 51/94).

Presented in part at the 15th European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine-Companion Animal Congress, Glasgow, September 2005.

Address correspondence to Dr. Leite-Moreira.