• 1.

    Martel-Pelletier J, McCollum R & Fujimoto N, et al. Excess of metalloproteases over tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease may contribute to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Lab Invest 1994;70:807815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Baici A, Lang A & Horler D, et al. Cathepsin B in osteoarthritis. Cytochemical and histochemical analysis of human femoral head cartilage. Ann Rheum Dis 1995;54:289297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Testa V, Capasso G & Maffulli N, et al. Proteases and antiproteases in cartilage homeostasis. A brief review. Clin Orthop 1994;308:7984.

  • 4.

    Roush JR, McLaughlin RM, Radlingsky MA. Understanding the pathophysiology of osteoarthrits. Vet Med 2002;97:108112.

  • 5.

    Burr DB, Radin EL. Trauma as a factor in the initiation of osteoarthritis. In: Cartilage changes in osteoarthritis. Indianapolis: Indiana University School of Medicine, 1990;7380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Brandt KD, Braunstein EM & Visco DM, et al. Cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament transection in the dog: a bona fide model of osteoarthritis, not merely of cartilage injury and repair. J Rheumatol 1991;18:436446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    McDevitt C, Gilbertson E, Miur H. An experimental model of osteoarthritis; early morphological and biochemical changes. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1977;59:2435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Adams ME. Target tissue models: cartilage changes in experimental osteoarthritis in the dog. J Rheumatol Suppl 1983;11:111113.

  • 9.

    Vignon E, Arlot M & Hartman D, et al. Hypertrophic repair of articular cartilage in experimental osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1983;42:8288.

  • 10.

    Pond MJ, Nuki G. Experimentally-induced osteoarthritis in the dog. Ann Rheum Dis 1973;32:387388.

  • 11.

    Mankin HJ, Mow VC & Buckwalter JA, et al. Form and function of articular cartilage. In: Simon SR, ed. Orthopaedic basic science. Rosemont, Ill: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1994;3341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Mankin HJ, Lippiello L. Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1970;52:424434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Mankin HJ, Johnson ME, Lippiello L. Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic human hips. III. Distribution and metabolism of amino sugar-containing macromolecules. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981;63:131139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Yamada K, Healey R & Amiel D, et al. Subchondral bone of the human knee joint in aging osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002;10:360369.

  • 15.

    Sicard GK, Markel MD, Manley PA. Histomorphometric analysis of the proximal portion of the femur in dogs with moderate osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:150155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Edinger DT, Hayashi K & Hongyu Y, et al. Histomorphometric analysis of the proximal portion of the femur in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:268274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Edinger DT, Hayashi K & Hongyu H, et al. Histomorphometric analysis of the proximal portion of the femur in dogs with osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:12671272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Burr DB, Schaffler MB. The involvement of subchondral mineralized tissues in osteoarthrosis: quantitative microscopic evidence. Microsc Res Tech 1997;37:343357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ. Instructional course lectures, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons—articular cartilage. Part II: degeneration and osteoarthrosis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997;79:612632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Shahar R, Banks-Sills L. Biomechanical analysis of canine hind limb: calculation of forces during three-legged stance. Vet J 2002;163:240250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Arnoczky SP, Torzilli PA. Biomechanical analysis of forces acting about the canine hip. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:15811585.

  • 22.

    Burr DB. The importance of subchondral bone in osteoarthrosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1998;10:256262.

  • 23.

    Radin EL, Rose RM. Role of subchondral bone in the initiation and progression of cartilage damage. Clin Orthop 1986;213:3440.

  • 24.

    Prieur WD. Coxarthrosis in the dog. Part I: normal and abnormal biomechanics of the hip joint. Vet Surg 1980;9:145149.

Advertisement

Histomorphometric analysis of articular cartilage, zone of calcified cartilage, and subchondral bone plate in femoral heads from clinically normal dogs and dogs with moderate or severe osteoarthritis

Brian M. Daubs DVM1, Mark D. Markel DVM, PhD2, and Paul A. Manley DVM, MSc3
View More View Less
  • 1 Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 2 Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 3 Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Abstract

Objective—To quantify and compare the microscopic changes in articular cartilage (AC), zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC), and subchondral bone plate in femoral heads from clinically normal dogs and dogs with moderate or severe osteoarthritis.

Sample Population—Femoral heads from clinically normal dogs (n = 16) and dogs with moderate (24) or severe (14) osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Femoral heads were allocated to 3 categories (normal, moderate, or severe osteoarthritis) on the basis of radiographic findings, macroscopic findings, and histologic grade determined by use of a modified Mankin scale. Equally spaced 2-mm sections were cut in each femoral head in a coronal or transverse plane. Thickness of the AC, ZCC, and subchondral bone plate was recorded.

Results—Mean thickness of AC was significantly greater in samples with moderate and severe osteoarthritis than those considered normal. Mean thickness of the ZCC was significantly greater in samples with moderate and severe osteoarthritis than those considered normal. Mean thickness of the subchondral bone plate in samples with severe osteoarthritis was significantly greater than those with moderate osteoarthritis and those considered normal. A significant decrease in AC thickness was detected in the proximomedial area of femoral heads with severe osteoarthritis, compared with those considered normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A cause and effect association between thickening of subchondral structures and thinning and loss of the overlying AC was not detected. Changes in AC were associated with changes in the subchondral bone plate, which is compatible with the theory of adaptation in response to altered load distribution.

Abstract

Objective—To quantify and compare the microscopic changes in articular cartilage (AC), zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC), and subchondral bone plate in femoral heads from clinically normal dogs and dogs with moderate or severe osteoarthritis.

Sample Population—Femoral heads from clinically normal dogs (n = 16) and dogs with moderate (24) or severe (14) osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Femoral heads were allocated to 3 categories (normal, moderate, or severe osteoarthritis) on the basis of radiographic findings, macroscopic findings, and histologic grade determined by use of a modified Mankin scale. Equally spaced 2-mm sections were cut in each femoral head in a coronal or transverse plane. Thickness of the AC, ZCC, and subchondral bone plate was recorded.

Results—Mean thickness of AC was significantly greater in samples with moderate and severe osteoarthritis than those considered normal. Mean thickness of the ZCC was significantly greater in samples with moderate and severe osteoarthritis than those considered normal. Mean thickness of the subchondral bone plate in samples with severe osteoarthritis was significantly greater than those with moderate osteoarthritis and those considered normal. A significant decrease in AC thickness was detected in the proximomedial area of femoral heads with severe osteoarthritis, compared with those considered normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A cause and effect association between thickening of subchondral structures and thinning and loss of the overlying AC was not detected. Changes in AC were associated with changes in the subchondral bone plate, which is compatible with the theory of adaptation in response to altered load distribution.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Daubs.