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Evaluation of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias

Christopher K. CebraDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4802.

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 VMD, MS
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Susan J. TornquistDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4802.

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 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To investigate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias.

Animals—7 llamas (age range, 14 to 30 days).

Procedure—On each of 2 sequential days, crias were administered glucose (0.5 g/kg) via rapid IV injection. On 1 day (randomly determined for each cria), regular insulin (0.2 U/kg) or 0.9% NaCl solution (0.002 mL/kg) was administered IV 15 minutes after glucose administration. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after glucose administration for determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations; fractional turnover rates and plasma half-life of glucose were calculated. The data were compared over time and between days (ie, between glucose treatments with and without insulin administration).

Results—A peak plasma glucose concentration of 342 ± 47 mg/dL was detected at 5 minutes after glucose administration and llamas cleared glucose from plasma within 60 minutes; at 15 minutes, plasma insulin concentration attained a peak value of 33 ± 13 µU/mL (ie, triple the baseline value). During the 15- to 45-minute interval, fractional turnover rate of glucose was 1.10 ± 0.24%/min and plasma half-life was 65.7 ± 13.4 minutes. Insulin significantly increased glucose turnover and resulted in hypoglycemia within 75 minutes of administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Healthy immature llamas have glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity superior to that of adults. However, whether sick crias retain the pancreatic sufficiency and tissue responsiveness that are likely responsible for the rapid glucose clearance in healthy individuals is not known. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1013–1017)

Abstract

Objective—To investigate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias.

Animals—7 llamas (age range, 14 to 30 days).

Procedure—On each of 2 sequential days, crias were administered glucose (0.5 g/kg) via rapid IV injection. On 1 day (randomly determined for each cria), regular insulin (0.2 U/kg) or 0.9% NaCl solution (0.002 mL/kg) was administered IV 15 minutes after glucose administration. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after glucose administration for determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations; fractional turnover rates and plasma half-life of glucose were calculated. The data were compared over time and between days (ie, between glucose treatments with and without insulin administration).

Results—A peak plasma glucose concentration of 342 ± 47 mg/dL was detected at 5 minutes after glucose administration and llamas cleared glucose from plasma within 60 minutes; at 15 minutes, plasma insulin concentration attained a peak value of 33 ± 13 µU/mL (ie, triple the baseline value). During the 15- to 45-minute interval, fractional turnover rate of glucose was 1.10 ± 0.24%/min and plasma half-life was 65.7 ± 13.4 minutes. Insulin significantly increased glucose turnover and resulted in hypoglycemia within 75 minutes of administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Healthy immature llamas have glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity superior to that of adults. However, whether sick crias retain the pancreatic sufficiency and tissue responsiveness that are likely responsible for the rapid glucose clearance in healthy individuals is not known. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1013–1017)