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Effects of Carolina rinse solution, dimethyl sulfoxide, and the 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, on microvascular permeability and morphology of the equine jejunum after low-flow ischemia and reperfusion

Robin M. Dabareiner DVM, PhD1,2, Nathaniel A. White DVM, MS3, Jack R. Snyder DVM, PhD4, Bernard F. Feldman DVM,PhD5, and Lydia L. Donaldson VMD, PhD6
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  • 1 Marion DuPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Leesburg, VA 20177.
  • | 2 Present address is the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-8863.
  • | 3 Marion DuPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Leesburg, VA 20177.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Marion DuPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Leesburg, VA 20177.
  • | 6 Marion DuPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Leesburg, VA 20177.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of Carolina rinse solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, on microvascular permeability and morphology of the equine jejunum after low-flow ischemia and reperfusion.

Animals—20 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Under anesthesia, full-thickness biopsy specimens of a distal portion of the jejunum were obtained for baseline measurements. In addition to a control segment, 2 jejunal segments were identified as sham-operated or experimental segments. Experimental segments underwent 60 minutes of low-flow ischemia and 3.5 hours of reperfusion. Treatments were as follows: U-74389G (3 mg/kg, IV; 6 horses), DMSO (20 mg/kg, IV; 6) diluted in 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, local perfusion (via jejunal artery) of Carolina rinse solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4), and local perfusion of lactated Ringer's solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4).

Results—Jejunal microvascular permeability was significantly lower after treatment with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO, compared with U-74389G or lactated Ringer's solution treatments. After DMSO treatment, serosal- and submucosal-layer edema was significantly increased in experimental segments, compared with control or sham-operated segments; however, edema increases were significantly less than for lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Significant decreases in intestinal wet weight-to-dry weight ratio were found following Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments, compared with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Edema formation and leukocyte infiltration in jejunal segments of horses treated with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G were increased, compared with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carolina rinse solution and DMSO may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the equine jejunum. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:525–536)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of Carolina rinse solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, on microvascular permeability and morphology of the equine jejunum after low-flow ischemia and reperfusion.

Animals—20 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Under anesthesia, full-thickness biopsy specimens of a distal portion of the jejunum were obtained for baseline measurements. In addition to a control segment, 2 jejunal segments were identified as sham-operated or experimental segments. Experimental segments underwent 60 minutes of low-flow ischemia and 3.5 hours of reperfusion. Treatments were as follows: U-74389G (3 mg/kg, IV; 6 horses), DMSO (20 mg/kg, IV; 6) diluted in 1 L of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, local perfusion (via jejunal artery) of Carolina rinse solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4), and local perfusion of lactated Ringer's solution (0.5 mL/kg; 4).

Results—Jejunal microvascular permeability was significantly lower after treatment with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO, compared with U-74389G or lactated Ringer's solution treatments. After DMSO treatment, serosal- and submucosal-layer edema was significantly increased in experimental segments, compared with control or sham-operated segments; however, edema increases were significantly less than for lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Significant decreases in intestinal wet weight-to-dry weight ratio were found following Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments, compared with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G treatments. Edema formation and leukocyte infiltration in jejunal segments of horses treated with lactated Ringer's solution or U-74389G were increased, compared with Carolina rinse solution or DMSO treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carolina rinse solution and DMSO may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the equine jejunum. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:525–536)