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Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations in dogs with babesiosis

Linda S. Jacobson BVSc, MMedVet(Med)1,2 and Remo G. Lobetti BVSc, MMedVet(Med)3,4
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  • 1 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
  • | 2 Present address is 86 Ledbury St, Toronto, ON M5M 4H4, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
  • | 4 Present address is Bryanston Veterinary Hospital, PO Box 67092, Bryanston 2021, South Africa.

Abstract

Objective—To document changes in glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations in dogs with severe or complicated babesiosis; assess relationships among glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations in those dogs; and compare clinical and laboratory variables in dogs with and without hypoglycemia and hyperlactatemia.

Animals—20 dogs with naturally developing severe or complicated babesiosis.

Procedure—Samples and measurements were obtained before treatment was initiated. Babesiosis was diagnosed by examination of blood smears. Arterial blood pressure measurement, parasite quantification, CBC count, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, venous blood gas analysis, and acid-base determination were performed. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations were measured in samples of venous blood.

Results—We detected a significant negative correlation between glucose and lactate concentrations. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations all differed significantly between dogs that died and those that survived. Three of 5 dogs that died had concurrent hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperpyruvatemia. Hypoglycemic dogs differed significantly from normoglycemic dogs with regard to lactate, urea, and bicarbonate concentrations; lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; percentage parasitemia; and PCO2. Dogs with hyperlactatemia differed significantly from normolactatemic dogs with regard to clinical collapse; alanine transaminase activity; concentrations of bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and bicarbonate; percentage parasitemia; and PCO2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism is commonly evident in dogs with severe or complicated babesiosis and is often associated with changes in other clinical and laboratory variables. Significant differences were found between survivors and nonsurvivors. Hypoglycemia should be assessed and aggressively treated in dogs with babesiosis. Lactate concentration can be used as an indicator of disease severity. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:244–250)

Abstract

Objective—To document changes in glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations in dogs with severe or complicated babesiosis; assess relationships among glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations in those dogs; and compare clinical and laboratory variables in dogs with and without hypoglycemia and hyperlactatemia.

Animals—20 dogs with naturally developing severe or complicated babesiosis.

Procedure—Samples and measurements were obtained before treatment was initiated. Babesiosis was diagnosed by examination of blood smears. Arterial blood pressure measurement, parasite quantification, CBC count, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, venous blood gas analysis, and acid-base determination were performed. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations were measured in samples of venous blood.

Results—We detected a significant negative correlation between glucose and lactate concentrations. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations all differed significantly between dogs that died and those that survived. Three of 5 dogs that died had concurrent hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperpyruvatemia. Hypoglycemic dogs differed significantly from normoglycemic dogs with regard to lactate, urea, and bicarbonate concentrations; lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; percentage parasitemia; and PCO2. Dogs with hyperlactatemia differed significantly from normolactatemic dogs with regard to clinical collapse; alanine transaminase activity; concentrations of bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and bicarbonate; percentage parasitemia; and PCO2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism is commonly evident in dogs with severe or complicated babesiosis and is often associated with changes in other clinical and laboratory variables. Significant differences were found between survivors and nonsurvivors. Hypoglycemia should be assessed and aggressively treated in dogs with babesiosis. Lactate concentration can be used as an indicator of disease severity. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:244–250)