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Influence of normovolemic anemia on Doppler characteristics of the abdominal aorta and splanchnic vessels in Beagles

Lee M. Koma BVM, MPhil1, Tim C. Spotswood BVSc2, Robert M. Kirberger BVSc, MMedVet3, and Piet J. Becker PhD4
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  • 1 Present address: Department of Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, PO box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • | 2 Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110 Republic of South Africa.
  • | 3 Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110 Republic of South Africa.
  • | 4 Medical Research Council, Private Bag X385, 1 Soutpansberg Rd, Pretoria, 0001 Republic of South Africa.

Abstract

Objective—To ultrasonographically evaluate hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta (AAo) and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia.

Animals—11 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—The AAo, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), celiac artery (CA), hilar splenic artery (HSA), and main portal vein (MPV) were evaluated in conscious dogs immediately before and after experimental induction of severe normovolemic anemia (Hct, 16%) and during recovery from moderate and mild anemia (Hct, 26% and 34%, respectively). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) or peak velocity (PV), time-averaged mean velocity (TAVmean), pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI), blood flow, congestion index (CI), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Results were compared for anemic and control states.

Results—Severe anemia caused significant increases in HR (25% to 70%), PSV (AAo, 45.8%; CMA, 56.1%; and CA, 41.9%), PV (MPV, 84.2%), and TAVmean (AAo, 69.4%, CMA, 64.3%; CA, 29.7%; and MPV, 76.9%) and significant decreases in PI (AAo, 26.1%; HSA, 19.3%) and CI (MPV, 45.2%). There was no significant change in PI of the CMA or CA, portal blood flow, or RI of any artery. Significantly higher TAVmean persisted in all vessels during moderate anemia, but higher PSV persisted only in the CMA; PI (CMA and CA) and RI (CA) decreased significantly, but portal blood flow increased significantly. Significant increase in TAVmean (AAo and CMA) persisted during mild anemia, and PI (AAo, CMA, and HSA) but RI (CMA) were significantly lower.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doppler ultrasonography revealed hyperdynamic circulation in the AAo and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:187–195)

Abstract

Objective—To ultrasonographically evaluate hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta (AAo) and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia.

Animals—11 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—The AAo, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), celiac artery (CA), hilar splenic artery (HSA), and main portal vein (MPV) were evaluated in conscious dogs immediately before and after experimental induction of severe normovolemic anemia (Hct, 16%) and during recovery from moderate and mild anemia (Hct, 26% and 34%, respectively). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) or peak velocity (PV), time-averaged mean velocity (TAVmean), pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI), blood flow, congestion index (CI), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Results were compared for anemic and control states.

Results—Severe anemia caused significant increases in HR (25% to 70%), PSV (AAo, 45.8%; CMA, 56.1%; and CA, 41.9%), PV (MPV, 84.2%), and TAVmean (AAo, 69.4%, CMA, 64.3%; CA, 29.7%; and MPV, 76.9%) and significant decreases in PI (AAo, 26.1%; HSA, 19.3%) and CI (MPV, 45.2%). There was no significant change in PI of the CMA or CA, portal blood flow, or RI of any artery. Significantly higher TAVmean persisted in all vessels during moderate anemia, but higher PSV persisted only in the CMA; PI (CMA and CA) and RI (CA) decreased significantly, but portal blood flow increased significantly. Significant increase in TAVmean (AAo and CMA) persisted during mild anemia, and PI (AAo, CMA, and HSA) but RI (CMA) were significantly lower.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doppler ultrasonography revealed hyperdynamic circulation in the AAo and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:187–195)