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Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease

Zlatko Pavlica DVM, PhD1, Milan Petelin DDM, PhD2, Alenka Nemec PhD3, Damjan Erzen MD4, and Uroš Skaleric DDM, PhD5
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  • 1 Clinic for Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • | 2 Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • | 3 Clinic for Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • | 4 University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.
  • | 5 Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

Animals—41 Toy and Miniature Poodles.

Procedure—After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit.

Results—Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1584–1588)

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

Animals—41 Toy and Miniature Poodles.

Procedure—After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit.

Results—Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1584–1588)