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Efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in neonatal calves

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  • 1 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Current address is The University Veterinary Centre Camden, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
  • | 4 Pharmacia Animal Health, 7000 Portage Rd, Kalamazoo, MI 49001.
  • | 5 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 7 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 8 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in neonatal calves.

Animals—Forty-two 1- to 4-day-old Holstein bull calves.

Procedure—36 calves were orally challenged with Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium (6.5 × 108 colony-forming units). Six additional calves were retained as nonmedicated nonchallenged control calves. Four days following Salmonella challenge, surviving calves were randomly allocated to ceftiofurtreated (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) or nonmedicated control groups. Calves assigned to the treated group were medicated daily for 5 days starting on day 4 after challenge. Calves were monitored for 18 days following Salmonella challenge. Outcome assessments included clinical parameters (attitude, appetite, fecal characteristics, and rectal temperature), mortality rate, and quantitative Salmonella culture of fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal contents.

Results—Ceftiofur treatment was associated with a significant decrease in rectal temperature and diarrhea. Three of 15 medicated calves and 4 of 14 nonmedicated calves died or were euthanatized between days 4 and 18. A significant decrease in fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms was observed in treated calves, compared with non-medicated calves. Salmonella organisms were isolated from all 10 nonmedicated calves at necropsy, whereas no Salmonella organisms were isolated from 5 of 12 medicated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of salmonellosis in neonatal calves with a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) promotes animal welfare, reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms, and may promote clearance of Salmonella infections when plasma ceftiofur concentrations are maintained above minimal inhibitory concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:918–925)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in neonatal calves.

Animals—Forty-two 1- to 4-day-old Holstein bull calves.

Procedure—36 calves were orally challenged with Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium (6.5 × 108 colony-forming units). Six additional calves were retained as nonmedicated nonchallenged control calves. Four days following Salmonella challenge, surviving calves were randomly allocated to ceftiofurtreated (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) or nonmedicated control groups. Calves assigned to the treated group were medicated daily for 5 days starting on day 4 after challenge. Calves were monitored for 18 days following Salmonella challenge. Outcome assessments included clinical parameters (attitude, appetite, fecal characteristics, and rectal temperature), mortality rate, and quantitative Salmonella culture of fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal contents.

Results—Ceftiofur treatment was associated with a significant decrease in rectal temperature and diarrhea. Three of 15 medicated calves and 4 of 14 nonmedicated calves died or were euthanatized between days 4 and 18. A significant decrease in fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms was observed in treated calves, compared with non-medicated calves. Salmonella organisms were isolated from all 10 nonmedicated calves at necropsy, whereas no Salmonella organisms were isolated from 5 of 12 medicated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of salmonellosis in neonatal calves with a high extralabel dose of ceftiofur (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) promotes animal welfare, reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms, and may promote clearance of Salmonella infections when plasma ceftiofur concentrations are maintained above minimal inhibitory concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:918–925)