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Bispectral index, spectral edge frequency 95%, and median frequency recorded for various concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane in pigs

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  • 1 Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Avda/Universidad s/n 10071 Cáceres, Spain.
  • | 2 Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Avda/Universidad s/n 10071 Cáceres, Spain.
  • | 3 Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Avda/Universidad s/n 10071 Cáceres, Spain.
  • | 4 Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Avda/Universidad s/n 10071 Cáceres, Spain.
  • | 5 Department of Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
  • | 6 Section of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Cádiz University, Cádiz, Spain.
  • | 7 Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Avda/Universidad s/n 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS), spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF), and median frequency (MED) in relation to a visual analogue scale (VAS) as indicators of anesthetic depth for various concentrations of sevoflurane and isoflurane in pigs.

Animals—32 pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to 8 groups (4 pigs/group). An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in each conscious pig. Pigs were then anesthetized by use of sevoflurane (n = 16) or isoflurane (16). Agents were administered in oxygen at minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs) of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 MAC in a randomized order. End-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained for 30 minutes, after which an EEG was recorded for 5 minutes; BIS, SEF, and MED were then calculated. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by use of the VAS. Cardiovascular and EEG responses to nociceptive stimuli were evaluated for each anesthetic agent.

Results—BIS decreased significantly for the various concentrations of each anesthetic. At equivalent MACs, BIS values were significantly higher during sevoflurane-induced anesthesia than during isoflurane- induced anesthesia. Values of MED and SEF decreased significantly from basal values to 1 MAC of sevoflurane and isoflurane. For both agents, there was good correlation between VAS scores and BIS values and between VAS scores and SEF values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS was useful for predicting changes in anesthetic depth at clinical dosages of inhalant anesthetics. Values of BIS, SEF, and MED were significantly higher during anesthesia induced by administration of sevoflurane than during anesthesia induced by administration of isoflurance at equivalent MACs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:866–873)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS), spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF), and median frequency (MED) in relation to a visual analogue scale (VAS) as indicators of anesthetic depth for various concentrations of sevoflurane and isoflurane in pigs.

Animals—32 pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to 8 groups (4 pigs/group). An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in each conscious pig. Pigs were then anesthetized by use of sevoflurane (n = 16) or isoflurane (16). Agents were administered in oxygen at minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs) of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 MAC in a randomized order. End-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained for 30 minutes, after which an EEG was recorded for 5 minutes; BIS, SEF, and MED were then calculated. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by use of the VAS. Cardiovascular and EEG responses to nociceptive stimuli were evaluated for each anesthetic agent.

Results—BIS decreased significantly for the various concentrations of each anesthetic. At equivalent MACs, BIS values were significantly higher during sevoflurane-induced anesthesia than during isoflurane- induced anesthesia. Values of MED and SEF decreased significantly from basal values to 1 MAC of sevoflurane and isoflurane. For both agents, there was good correlation between VAS scores and BIS values and between VAS scores and SEF values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS was useful for predicting changes in anesthetic depth at clinical dosages of inhalant anesthetics. Values of BIS, SEF, and MED were significantly higher during anesthesia induced by administration of sevoflurane than during anesthesia induced by administration of isoflurance at equivalent MACs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:866–873)