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Efficacy of various concentrations of coumaphos to control adult, nymphal, and larval stages of an organophosphate-resistant strain of Boophilus microplus on infested cattle

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  • 1 USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Cattle Fever Tick Research Lab, Rt 3 Box 1010, Edinburg, TX 78539.
  • | 2 USDA, ARS, Knipling-Bushland US Livestock Insects Lab, 2700 Fredricksburg Rd, Kerrville, TX 78028.
  • | 3 USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Cattle Fever Tick Research Lab, Rt 3 Box 1010, Edinburg, TX 78539.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of coumaphos, an organophosphate (OP) acaricide, at concentrations up to 2 times higher than the highest concentration required by the US Eradication Program against all stages of an OP-resistant strain of Boophilus microplusin experimentally infested cattle.

Animals—16 tick-naïve 200-kg female Hereford calves.

Procedure—Four groups of cattle (4 calves/group) were all infested with Boophilus ticks 3 times before treatment. Each group was treated with coumaphos as follows: group 1, at 0.165% active ingredient (AI); group 2, at 0.299% AI; group 3, at 0.566% AI; and group 4, not treated. Following treatment, ticks were collected for 21 days. Ticks collected 1 to 7, 8 to 14, and 15 to 21 days after treatment were considered adults, nymphs, and larvae, respectively, at time of treatment.

Results—Overall control at 0.165, 0.299, and 0.566% AI was 52.9, 75.8, and 89.7%, respectively. Control of adults ranged from 4.3% at 0.165% AI to 73.5% at 0.566% AI. Control of nymphs ranged from 60.6% at 0.165% AI to 97.3% at 0.566% AI. Control of larvae was > 98% at all coumaphos concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All coumaphos concentrations failed to provide acceptable control for use in the US Eradication Program against OPresistant ticks. Treatment was least effective against adults and most effective against larvae. Even at 0.566% AI (2 times higher than required by the US Eradication Program), ticks were not eradicated, placing the United States at risk from dispersing cattle harboring viable ticks to uninfested areas. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:684–689)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of coumaphos, an organophosphate (OP) acaricide, at concentrations up to 2 times higher than the highest concentration required by the US Eradication Program against all stages of an OP-resistant strain of Boophilus microplusin experimentally infested cattle.

Animals—16 tick-naïve 200-kg female Hereford calves.

Procedure—Four groups of cattle (4 calves/group) were all infested with Boophilus ticks 3 times before treatment. Each group was treated with coumaphos as follows: group 1, at 0.165% active ingredient (AI); group 2, at 0.299% AI; group 3, at 0.566% AI; and group 4, not treated. Following treatment, ticks were collected for 21 days. Ticks collected 1 to 7, 8 to 14, and 15 to 21 days after treatment were considered adults, nymphs, and larvae, respectively, at time of treatment.

Results—Overall control at 0.165, 0.299, and 0.566% AI was 52.9, 75.8, and 89.7%, respectively. Control of adults ranged from 4.3% at 0.165% AI to 73.5% at 0.566% AI. Control of nymphs ranged from 60.6% at 0.165% AI to 97.3% at 0.566% AI. Control of larvae was > 98% at all coumaphos concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All coumaphos concentrations failed to provide acceptable control for use in the US Eradication Program against OPresistant ticks. Treatment was least effective against adults and most effective against larvae. Even at 0.566% AI (2 times higher than required by the US Eradication Program), ticks were not eradicated, placing the United States at risk from dispersing cattle harboring viable ticks to uninfested areas. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:684–689)