Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

Keith G. BensonDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Present address is Riverbanks Zoo and Garden, 500 Wildlife Pkwy, Columbia, SC 29210.

Search for other papers by Keith G. Benson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Lisa A. TellDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Search for other papers by Lisa A. Tell in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Lee A. YoungZoological Society of San Diego, PO Box 120551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.

Search for other papers by Lee A. Young in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Scott WetzlichEnvironmental Toxicology Extension, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Search for other papers by Scott Wetzlich in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Arthur L CraigmillEnvironmental Toxicology Extension, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Search for other papers by Arthur L Craigmill in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)