Advertisement

Evaluation of transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonography for the measurement of blood flow in the femoral artery of pigs

Maria Josefa Fernández del PalacioDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.
Present address is Departamento de Patología Animal, Universidad de Murcia, Facultad de Veterinaria, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

Search for other papers by Maria Josefa Fernández del Palacio in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Virginia Luis FuentesDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.
Present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Virginia Luis Fuentes in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VetMB, PhD
,
John D. BonaguraDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.
Present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by John D. Bonagura in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Karsten E. SchoberDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.
Present address is Department of Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 23, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Search for other papers by Karsten E. Schober in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PD, Dr vet med habil
,
Daniel G. HatfieldDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.

Search for other papers by Daniel G. Hatfield in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
, and
M. Harold LaughlinDepartment of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201.

Search for other papers by M. Harold Laughlin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To compare measurements of blood flow in the common femoral artery obtained by duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) and a reference ultrasonic transit-time flow (TTF) method and to examine the impact of Doppler spectral waveform measurement techniques on volumetric estimates.

Animals—5 healthy female pigs.

Procedure—Femoral arterial blood flow was measured simultaneously in anesthetized pigs by use of a TTF probe (left femoral artery) and transcutaneous DDU (right femoral artery). A range of flow states was induced pharmacologically by using xylazine, bradykinin, dobutamine, and isoflurane. Volumetric blood flow was calculated from DDU waveforms, using the product of the flow velocity integral (FVI), the cross-sectional vessel area, and heart rate. Three calculations of FVI were obtained by manually tracing the Doppler spectral envelopes at the outer envelope, the modal, and the inner envelope of the spectral dispersion pattern. Data analysis included calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman limits of agreement.

Results—Blood flow measured by DDU was more closely correlated with TTF measurements when the modal or inner envelope tracing method was used ( r, 0.76 and 0.78; limits of agreement, –100 to 54.2 and –48.5 to 77.0 mL/min, respectively). Limits of agreement for the outer envelope tracing method were –238.5 to 64 mL/min.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transcutaneous DDU is a reliable noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in the femoral artery of pigs over a range of flow states. Tracing the inner envelope of the Doppler spectral dispersion pattern provided the best estimate of blood flow in this study. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:43–50)

Abstract

Objective—To compare measurements of blood flow in the common femoral artery obtained by duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) and a reference ultrasonic transit-time flow (TTF) method and to examine the impact of Doppler spectral waveform measurement techniques on volumetric estimates.

Animals—5 healthy female pigs.

Procedure—Femoral arterial blood flow was measured simultaneously in anesthetized pigs by use of a TTF probe (left femoral artery) and transcutaneous DDU (right femoral artery). A range of flow states was induced pharmacologically by using xylazine, bradykinin, dobutamine, and isoflurane. Volumetric blood flow was calculated from DDU waveforms, using the product of the flow velocity integral (FVI), the cross-sectional vessel area, and heart rate. Three calculations of FVI were obtained by manually tracing the Doppler spectral envelopes at the outer envelope, the modal, and the inner envelope of the spectral dispersion pattern. Data analysis included calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman limits of agreement.

Results—Blood flow measured by DDU was more closely correlated with TTF measurements when the modal or inner envelope tracing method was used ( r, 0.76 and 0.78; limits of agreement, –100 to 54.2 and –48.5 to 77.0 mL/min, respectively). Limits of agreement for the outer envelope tracing method were –238.5 to 64 mL/min.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transcutaneous DDU is a reliable noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in the femoral artery of pigs over a range of flow states. Tracing the inner envelope of the Doppler spectral dispersion pattern provided the best estimate of blood flow in this study. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:43–50)