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Effects of medetomidine-midazolam, acepromazine-butorphanol, and midazolam-butorphanol on induction dose of thiopental and propofol and on cardiopulmonary changes in dogs

Kentaro KojimaLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

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Ryohei NishimuraLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

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Tatsushi MutohLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

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Sung-Hyeok HongLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
Present address is Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of VeterinaryMedicine, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong,Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, South Korea.

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Manabu MochizukiLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

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Nobuo SasakiLaboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate dose-sparing effects of medetomidine-midazolam (MM), acepromazinebutorphanol (AB), and midazolam-butorphanol (MB) on the induction dose of thiopental and propofol and to examine cardiopulmonary changes in dogs.

Animals—23 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were administered MM, AB, MB, or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (PS) IM, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and after administration of medication and 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after endotracheal intubation.

Results—Induction doses were reduced significantly by preanesthetic administration of MM, AB, and MB (thiopental, 20, 45, and 46% after administration of PS; propofol, 42, 58, and 74% after administration of PS, respectively). Recovery time in dogs administered MM-thiopental or MM-propofol and AB-propofol were significantly prolonged, compared with recovery time in dogs administered PS-thiopental or PS-propofol. Relatively large cardiovascular changes were induced by administration of MM, which were sustained even after the induction of anesthesia. Administration of AB and MB induced cardiovascular changes during and immediately after endotracheal intubation that were significantly decreased by induction with thiopental or propofol. However, mild hypotension developed with AB-propofol. Apnea was observed in dogs administered MM during induction of anesthesia, but most respiratory variables did not change significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preanesthetic medication with MM greatly reduced the anesthesia induction dose of thiopental and propofol but caused noticeable cardiopulmonary changes. Preanesthetic medication with AB and MB moderately reduced the induction dose of thiopental and propofol and ameliorated cardiovascular changes induced by these anesthetics, although AB caused mild hypotension. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1671–1679)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate dose-sparing effects of medetomidine-midazolam (MM), acepromazinebutorphanol (AB), and midazolam-butorphanol (MB) on the induction dose of thiopental and propofol and to examine cardiopulmonary changes in dogs.

Animals—23 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were administered MM, AB, MB, or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (PS) IM, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and after administration of medication and 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after endotracheal intubation.

Results—Induction doses were reduced significantly by preanesthetic administration of MM, AB, and MB (thiopental, 20, 45, and 46% after administration of PS; propofol, 42, 58, and 74% after administration of PS, respectively). Recovery time in dogs administered MM-thiopental or MM-propofol and AB-propofol were significantly prolonged, compared with recovery time in dogs administered PS-thiopental or PS-propofol. Relatively large cardiovascular changes were induced by administration of MM, which were sustained even after the induction of anesthesia. Administration of AB and MB induced cardiovascular changes during and immediately after endotracheal intubation that were significantly decreased by induction with thiopental or propofol. However, mild hypotension developed with AB-propofol. Apnea was observed in dogs administered MM during induction of anesthesia, but most respiratory variables did not change significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preanesthetic medication with MM greatly reduced the anesthesia induction dose of thiopental and propofol but caused noticeable cardiopulmonary changes. Preanesthetic medication with AB and MB moderately reduced the induction dose of thiopental and propofol and ameliorated cardiovascular changes induced by these anesthetics, although AB caused mild hypotension. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1671–1679)