Changes in concentrations of neuroendocrine hormones and catecholamines in dogs with myocardial failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing

Brian M. Roche Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Denise Schwartz Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Robert A. Lehnhard Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, College of Education and Human Development, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469.

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Kenneth H. McKeever Department of Animal Science, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.

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Tomohiro Nakayama Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Timothy E. Kirby Department of Physical Activities and Educational Services, College of Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Pierre-Marie L. Robitaille Department of Radiology, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Robert L. Hamlin Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Abstract

Objective—To describe neuroendocrine responses that develop in dogs subjected to prolonged periods of ventricular pacing.

Animals—14 adult male hound-type dogs.

Procedure—Samples were obtained and neuroendocrine responses measured before (baseline) and after 3 periods of ventricular pacing. A pacemaker was used to induce heart rates of 180, 200, and 220 beats/min (BPM). Each heart rate was maintained for 3 weeks before increasing to the next rate. Atrial natriuretic peptide, antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine concentrations and plasma renin activity were measured. Severity of left ventricular compromise was estimated.

Results—Shortening fraction decreased significantly with increasing heart rates (mean ± SE, 35.5 ± 1.4, 25.0 ± 1.4, 19.5 ± 1.9, and 12.2 ± 2.3 for baseline, 180 BPM, 200 BPM, and 220 BPM, respectively). Atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations increased significantly at 180 BPM (44.1 ± 3.0 pg/mL) and 200 BPM (54.8 ± 5.5 pg/mL), compared with baseline concentration (36.8 ± 2.6 pg/mL). Dopamine concentration increased significantly at 200 BPM (70.4 ± 10.4 pg/mL), compared with baseline concentration (44.2 ± 7.3 pg/mL). Norepinephrine concentrations increased significantly from baseline concentration (451 ± 46.2 pg/mL) to 678 ± 69.8, 856 ± 99.6, and 1,003 ± 267.6 pg/mL at 180, 200, and 220 BPM, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs subjected to ventricular pacing for 9 weeks developed neuroendocrine responses similar to those that develop in humans with more chronic heart failure and, except for epinephrine concentrations, similar to those for dogs subjected to ventricular pacing for < 6 weeks. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1413–1417)

Abstract

Objective—To describe neuroendocrine responses that develop in dogs subjected to prolonged periods of ventricular pacing.

Animals—14 adult male hound-type dogs.

Procedure—Samples were obtained and neuroendocrine responses measured before (baseline) and after 3 periods of ventricular pacing. A pacemaker was used to induce heart rates of 180, 200, and 220 beats/min (BPM). Each heart rate was maintained for 3 weeks before increasing to the next rate. Atrial natriuretic peptide, antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine concentrations and plasma renin activity were measured. Severity of left ventricular compromise was estimated.

Results—Shortening fraction decreased significantly with increasing heart rates (mean ± SE, 35.5 ± 1.4, 25.0 ± 1.4, 19.5 ± 1.9, and 12.2 ± 2.3 for baseline, 180 BPM, 200 BPM, and 220 BPM, respectively). Atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations increased significantly at 180 BPM (44.1 ± 3.0 pg/mL) and 200 BPM (54.8 ± 5.5 pg/mL), compared with baseline concentration (36.8 ± 2.6 pg/mL). Dopamine concentration increased significantly at 200 BPM (70.4 ± 10.4 pg/mL), compared with baseline concentration (44.2 ± 7.3 pg/mL). Norepinephrine concentrations increased significantly from baseline concentration (451 ± 46.2 pg/mL) to 678 ± 69.8, 856 ± 99.6, and 1,003 ± 267.6 pg/mL at 180, 200, and 220 BPM, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs subjected to ventricular pacing for 9 weeks developed neuroendocrine responses similar to those that develop in humans with more chronic heart failure and, except for epinephrine concentrations, similar to those for dogs subjected to ventricular pacing for < 6 weeks. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1413–1417)

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