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Susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus of turkey origin

Hyun-Jin ShinDepartment of Veterinary PathoBiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Moses K. NjengaDepartment of Veterinary PathoBiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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David A. HalvorsonDepartment of Veterinary PathoBiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Daniel P. ShawDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Kakambi V. NagarajaDepartment of Veterinary PathoBiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus (APV) of turkey origin.

Animals—30 Pekin ducks that were 2 weeks old.

Procedure—Ducks were assigned to 3 groups (10 ducks/group). Ducks of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (day 0) with 200 µl of cell-culture fluid containing APV of turkey origin (105.5 median tissue-culture infective dose/ml) by the oculonasal (group 1) or oral (group 2) route. Ducks of group 3 served as noninoculated control birds. Two ducks from each group were euthanatized 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 days after inoculation. Blood samples, tissue samples from the lungs, trachea, nasal turbinates, duodenum, diverticulum vitellinum (Meckel's diverticulum), and cecum, and swab specimens from the choana, cloaca, and trachea were obtained from all birds during necropsy and examined for APV by use of reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and histologic examination. Blood samples also were examined for APV antibodies, using an ELISA.

Results—Tissue samples obtained up to 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested by use of RT-PCR. Virus was isolated from nasal turbinates of birds inoculated via the oculonasal route. Serum samples obtained 15 and 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested for APV-specific antibody. Clinical signs of disease were not observed in ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin may not develop clinical signs of disease, but they are suspected to play a role as nonclinical carriers of APV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:991–992)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus (APV) of turkey origin.

Animals—30 Pekin ducks that were 2 weeks old.

Procedure—Ducks were assigned to 3 groups (10 ducks/group). Ducks of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (day 0) with 200 µl of cell-culture fluid containing APV of turkey origin (105.5 median tissue-culture infective dose/ml) by the oculonasal (group 1) or oral (group 2) route. Ducks of group 3 served as noninoculated control birds. Two ducks from each group were euthanatized 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 days after inoculation. Blood samples, tissue samples from the lungs, trachea, nasal turbinates, duodenum, diverticulum vitellinum (Meckel's diverticulum), and cecum, and swab specimens from the choana, cloaca, and trachea were obtained from all birds during necropsy and examined for APV by use of reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and histologic examination. Blood samples also were examined for APV antibodies, using an ELISA.

Results—Tissue samples obtained up to 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested by use of RT-PCR. Virus was isolated from nasal turbinates of birds inoculated via the oculonasal route. Serum samples obtained 15 and 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested for APV-specific antibody. Clinical signs of disease were not observed in ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin may not develop clinical signs of disease, but they are suspected to play a role as nonclinical carriers of APV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:991–992)