Additive effects of a sodium chloride restricted diet and furosemide administration in healthy dogs

Cindy S. Lovern Departments of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
Present address is the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Ste 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173-4360.

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 DVM, MS
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William S. Swecker Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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John C. Lee Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Martha L. Moon Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a low or high sodium (Na) diet with or without furosemide administration on plasma electrolyte concentrations and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in healthy dogs.

Animals—20 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allotted to 4 groups of 5 dogs each as follows: dogs fed a low Na diet (0.08% Na and 0.8% chloride [Cl] on a dry matter [DM] basis); dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl (1.0% Na and 2.2% Cl on a DM basis); dogs fed a low Na diet and treated with furosemide (2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h); and dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl and treated with furosemide. Plasma electrolyte concentrations were measured on days 0, 21, and 35. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were analyzed by use of radioimmunoassays on days 0, 21, 35, and 53.

Results—Furosemide treatment significantly decreased plasma Cl concentration and significantly increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration. Dogs fed a low Na diet had significantly higher plasma renin activities and plasma aldosterone concentrations. A significant interaction between a low Na diet and furosemide administration resulted in the lowest plasma Cl concentrations, highest plasma renin activities, and highest plasma aldosterone concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, feeding a low Na diet and administering furosemide resulted in an additive effect on plasma Cl concentration, renin activity, and aldosterone concentration, which may be an important consideration for treating dogs with cardiac disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1793–1796)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a low or high sodium (Na) diet with or without furosemide administration on plasma electrolyte concentrations and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in healthy dogs.

Animals—20 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allotted to 4 groups of 5 dogs each as follows: dogs fed a low Na diet (0.08% Na and 0.8% chloride [Cl] on a dry matter [DM] basis); dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl (1.0% Na and 2.2% Cl on a DM basis); dogs fed a low Na diet and treated with furosemide (2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h); and dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl and treated with furosemide. Plasma electrolyte concentrations were measured on days 0, 21, and 35. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were analyzed by use of radioimmunoassays on days 0, 21, 35, and 53.

Results—Furosemide treatment significantly decreased plasma Cl concentration and significantly increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration. Dogs fed a low Na diet had significantly higher plasma renin activities and plasma aldosterone concentrations. A significant interaction between a low Na diet and furosemide administration resulted in the lowest plasma Cl concentrations, highest plasma renin activities, and highest plasma aldosterone concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, feeding a low Na diet and administering furosemide resulted in an additive effect on plasma Cl concentration, renin activity, and aldosterone concentration, which may be an important consideration for treating dogs with cardiac disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1793–1796)

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