Use of intraosseous blood for repeated hematologic and biochemical analyses in healthy pigs

Suellen C. Greco Division of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110.

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Michael R Talcott Division of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110.

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Marie C LaRegina Division of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110.

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Paul E. Eisenbeis Division of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of repeated intraosseous (IO) needle placement in domestic pigs and determine whether blood and serum obtained intraosseously could be used for CBC and biochemical analyses.

Animals—5 healthy 10-week-old pigs.

Procedure—An IO needle was placed in the proximomedial region of the tibia of anesthetized pigs every other week for 2 months, and IO blood was obtained for CBC and serum biochemical analyses. Results were compared with those obtained for blood collected at the same time from the auricular vein. Two weeks after the final samples were obtained, pigs were euthanatized and tibias were processed for histologic examination.

Results—Clinical abnormalities, including lameness, were not detected following IO needle placement. Histologic examination revealed only mild multifocal periosteal fibrosis and slight thickening of the periosteum without evidence of osteomyelitis. Chloride, creatinine, glucose, total protein, sodium, and BUN concentrations, alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities, RBC count, mean corpuscular volume, and Hct did not significantly differ between IO and venous samples. However, aspartate transaminase activity, potassium, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and platelet and WBC counts were significantly different.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Repeated placement of IO needles may be a safe and clinically useful method to obtain serial blood samples from domestic pigs, particularly when other vascular sites are not accessible. Intraosseous blood can be used for many of the tests comprising CBC and serum biochemical analyses. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:43–47)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of repeated intraosseous (IO) needle placement in domestic pigs and determine whether blood and serum obtained intraosseously could be used for CBC and biochemical analyses.

Animals—5 healthy 10-week-old pigs.

Procedure—An IO needle was placed in the proximomedial region of the tibia of anesthetized pigs every other week for 2 months, and IO blood was obtained for CBC and serum biochemical analyses. Results were compared with those obtained for blood collected at the same time from the auricular vein. Two weeks after the final samples were obtained, pigs were euthanatized and tibias were processed for histologic examination.

Results—Clinical abnormalities, including lameness, were not detected following IO needle placement. Histologic examination revealed only mild multifocal periosteal fibrosis and slight thickening of the periosteum without evidence of osteomyelitis. Chloride, creatinine, glucose, total protein, sodium, and BUN concentrations, alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities, RBC count, mean corpuscular volume, and Hct did not significantly differ between IO and venous samples. However, aspartate transaminase activity, potassium, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and platelet and WBC counts were significantly different.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Repeated placement of IO needles may be a safe and clinically useful method to obtain serial blood samples from domestic pigs, particularly when other vascular sites are not accessible. Intraosseous blood can be used for many of the tests comprising CBC and serum biochemical analyses. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:43–47)

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